Chapter 2 Endnotes for Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection

How The Immune System Works


1)      Zimmer, Carl. “How Microbes Defend and Define Us.”  The New York Times. July 13, 2010. Online at


3)      Many insights were drawn from several textbooks, e.g., Murphy (2008) and websites such as  and  and (2007) and and  and and (2011)

4)  Excellent overview. (2010)

5) is an example of ignorance.

6)      Albright JB, et. “Incidental appendectomy: 18-year pathologic survey and cost effectiveness in the nonmanaged-care setting.” J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Aug;205(2):298-306. Online at

7)      From McGraw-Hill Science & Technology Encyclopedia: Appendicitis. Online at (2011)

8) (2009)

9)      Martin E and Bhakdi S. “Quantitative Analysis of Opsonophagocytosis and of Killing of Candida albicans by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes by Using Flow Cytometry.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Sept. 1991, Vol 29, No. 9. p. 2013-2023.



12)      Brandt L. “Vitamin B12 and phagocytosis.” (2005)

13)      Alternatives, November 1994; 5:17  and


15) (2010)

16)      Taylor SL. “Histamine food poisoning: toxicology and clinical aspects.” Crit Rev Toxicol. 1986;17(2):91-128.

17)      Szczepankiewicz A, et al. “Polymorphisms of two histamine-metabolizing enzymes genes and childhood allergic asthma: a case control study.” Clinical and Molecular Allergy 2010, 8:14

18)      Clark (1997), p. 110.


20)      Geuking MB, et al. “Intestinal Bacterial Colonization Induces Mutualistic Regulatory T Cell Responses.” Immunity Vol 34, 794–806, May 27, 2011

21)      Epithelial cell overview (excellent photos, drawings)

22)      Rescigno M and Di Sabatino A. “Dendritic cells in intestinal homeostasis and disease.” J. Clin. Invest. 119:2441–2450 (2009). [Many more references at the end of this article.] Online at  

23)      Coombes JL and Powrie F. “Dendritic cells in intestinal immune regulation” 2008. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8:435–446. Also see Iliev ID, et al. “Human intestinal epithelial cells promote the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells.” Gut. 2009 Nov;58(11):1481-9.

24)      Acin-Perez R, Hoyos B, et al. “Control of oxidative phosphorylation by vitamin A illuminates a fundamental role in mitochondrial energy homoeostasis.” FASEB J. 2010 Feb;24(2):627-36.

25)      Ash, Michael. “Gut Flora, Pre & Probiotics, Vitamins A & D—Do They Influence Allergy and Autoimmunity?” (2011)

26)      Nurmatov U, Devereux G, Sheikh A. “Nutrients and foods for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy: systematic review and meta-analysis.” J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar;127(3):724-33.

27)      Dr. Mercola has written and lectured extensively on the importance of vitamin D. See

28)      Gombart, A.F “The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection.” Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 4(9)1151-65.]

29)      Blatt GJ, et al.  “Density and distribution of hippocampal neurotransmitter receptors in autism: an autoradiographic study.” J Autism Dev Disord. 2001 Dec;31(6):537-43.

30)      Quinn M, et al. “Adult attachment insecurity and hippocampal cell density.” Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (2010) 5 (1): 39-47.

31)      Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, et al. “Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits.” Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104 Suppl 2:S1-63. See

32)      Slide presentation at the 2011 Institute for Functional Medicine International conference, Bellevue, WA.

33)      Unattributed article. “Risk and rewards of fecal transplants.”  CMAJ, March 22, 2011, 183(5). Online at


35) (2011)

36) and Chan SM, et al. “Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of antinuclear antibodies in the United States.” Arthritis and Rheumatism (2012).


38)      Bacon BR, Shiffman ML, et al. “Retreating chronic hepatitis C with daily interferon alfacon-1/ribavirin after nonresponse to pegylated interferon/ribavirin: DIRECT results.” Hepatology. 2009 Jun;49(6):1838-46. Online at

39)      Peterson SL, et al. “Autocrine TNFα Signaling renders Human Cancer Cells Susceptible to Smac-Mimetic-Induced Apoptosis.” Cancer Cell, Volume 12, Issue 5, 13 November 2007, Pages 445-456. Online at

40)      Blackwell JM, Jamieson SE, and Burgner D. “HLA and Infectious Diseases.” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. April 2009 vol. 22 no. 2 370-385. Online at

41)      Karlson, E.W., et al. “Biomarkers of inflammation and development of rheumatoid arthritis in women from two prospective cohort studies.” Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 60, No. 3, March 2009, pp 641–652.

42)      Haselwood DM, Castles JJ: “The biology of the rheumatoid synovial cell (Medical Progress). West J Med 127:204-214, Sep 1977.  Online at  [Many references at the end of this article]

43)      Collins C, Wolfe J, et al. “Lyme Arthritis Synovial γδT Cells Instruct Dendritic Cells via Fas Ligand.” The Journal of Immunology, 2005, 175: 5656–5665.

44)      Notley CA, et al. “ANTI-CD3 therapy expands the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ treg cells and induces sustained amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis.” (2010). Also see


46)      Cousins (1981)



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