Chapter 6 Endnotes for Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection

Diagnostic Tests

1)      An explanation of laboratory tests and ways to interpret test results can be found at and at

2)      Presentation at the April 2011 Institute for Functional Medicine conference, “Principle-based Medicine.” Bellevue, WA.

3)      Lubkin and Larsen (2008), pg. 5

4)      Fletcher R, Fairfield K. “Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults.” JAMA. 2002;287:3127–3129. Also Field C, Johnson I, Schley P. “Nutrients and their role on host resistance to infection.” Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2002;71:16–32.

5)      See They offer a physician referral network at and articles linking specific conditions (e.g., autism) with food allergies. See 

6)  Note: The author has experienced severe bursitis symptoms, skin rash that appears to be eczema, and what appears to be conjunctivitis within 4 hours of eating shrimp.

7)      Little C, Stewart AG, Fennesy MR. “Platelet serotonin release in rheumatoid arthritis: a study in food intolerant patients.” Lancet 1983;297-9.

8)  (2008)

9)      There are many online resources on the topic of allergy testing, including: (2008); (2010);;conten (2006); (2008);


10)  (2010)

11)   Baker, SM, McDonnell, M., et al. “Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study Proves Effectiveness of IgG Food ELISA Testing.” Paper presented at American Academy of Environmental Medicine Advanced Seminar, Virginia Beach, VA, October 1994.

12)   Interview with Dr. Sidney M. Baker, M.D. by Dr. James Braly, M.D. in The Immuno Review, Summer 1995. See also Baker (1994).

13)   Allergy testing:

14)   One such resource is Immuno Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale, FL, partnered with Better Health USA.

15)   At the Institute for Molecular Medicine, a comprehensive Chronic Illness Survey Form is given to all family members of applicants for laboratory testing. See

16)   Earl Mindell’s Allergy Bible (2003)

17)   Gibson EL. “Emotional influences on food choice: Sensory, physiological and psychological pathways.” Physiol Behav. 2006;89:53-61.

18)   Goldstone, T, et al. “Stomach hormone ghrelin increases desire for high-calorie foods.”Presentation at The Endocrine Society’s 92nd Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA, June 2010.

19)  (June 2010)


21)   Scammell (1998) pp. 260-1.

22)   Sidney E. Grossberg; Jerry L. Taylor; Ruth E. Siebenlist; et al. “Biological and Immunological Assays of Human Interferons” in Rose (1986) pp. 295-299. Also see Higgs BW, Liu Z, et al. “Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, myositis, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma share activation of a common type I interferon pathway.” (2011) Oneline at

23)   McCarty, Maclyn. “Historical Perspective On C-Reactive Protein” in Kushner (1982) pp. 1-8.



26) Estimating that 6100 lives per year could be saved, the CDC recommended in April 2011 that older adults get the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine.

27) (2002)

28)   Scammell (1998) pp. 153-4.

29)   Ramsland PA, et al. “Interference of rheumatoid factor activity by aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester.” J Mol Recognit 1999 Sep-Oct;12(5):249-57. Online at 

30) (2011)


32)  (2011)


34)   Kitchen, REC. “Patient Information on a Low White Blood Cell Count” (2010). Online at

35)   Weissman, Gerald, et al. “Neutrophils:  Release of Mediators of Inflammation with Special Reference to Rheumatoid Arthritis” in Kushner (1982) pp. 11-18.

36)   Simecka, J. W.; Davis, J. K; Davidson, M.K; et al. “Mycoplasma Diseases of Animals” in Maniloff (1992) section V, chapter 24.

37)   Haier J, Nasralla M, Franco AR, Nicholson GL. “Detection of mycoplasmal infections in blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.” J Rheumatol. 2003 Oct:30(10):2112-22. Online at]



40)   Boyle, LH and Hill Gaston, JSH. “Breaking the rules: the unconventional recognition of HLA‐B27 by CD4+ T lymphocytes as an insight into the pathogenesis of the spondyloarthropathies.” Rheumatology (2003) 42 (3): 404-412.


42)   Hammer J, Gallazzi, F, Bono E, et al. “Peptide binding specificity of HLA-DR4 molecules: correlation with rheumatoid arthritis association.” JEM vol. 181 no. 5 1847-1855 (1995). Also see (2007)

43)   Conversation with Dr. Robert D. Inman, rheumatologist and professor of medicine/immunology at the Univ. of Toronto. He now heads the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC): a transdisciplinary national research program.

44)   Remmers E, et al. “STAT4 and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.” NEJM 2007;357(10):13-22.

45)   An excellent overview of AS research from the 1970s is

46)   Mirkin, Gabe, M.D. “Ankylosing Spondylitis (Reactive Arthritis of the Spine).”  (July, 2010)

47)   Toivanen (1988) pp. 21-2.

48)   An impressive body of research on P. mirabilis and its role in RA has been done by Alan Ebringer. E.g., and other articles on PubMed.


50) (2009)


52) (2011)


54)   Mehraein Y, et al. “Latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in synovial tissue of autoimmune chronic arthritis determined by RNA- and DNA-in situ hybridization.” Modern Pathology (2004) 17, 781–789

55)   Davignon JL, et al. “Maintenance of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4pos T-cell response in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatments.” Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(4):R142.

56)   Vojani A, Mumper E, et al. “Low natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in autism: the role of glutathione, IL-2 and IL-15.” J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Dec 15;205(1-2):148-54. Online at

57)   Enstrom AM, Lit L, et al. “Altered Gene Expression and Function of Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells in Children with Autism.” Brain Behavior Immunity 23(1):124-133, 2009. Online at



60)   “Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis.”

61)   See

62) (2008)

63)   Mary Shomon’s interview with David Brownstein, M.D. “Arthritis and Joint Pain with Thyroid and Autoimmune Disease.” June 12, 2011. At

64)   See (2006)



67)   Links to co-infections, i.e., insect borne infections: Borellia Burgdorfi, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia,  Bartonella, Colorado tick fever virus, Mycoplasmas, Powassan encephalitis virus, Q Fever, Tularemia (bacteria).

68)   Anderson, Trivieri, and Goldberg (2002)


70)   ThermaScan, Inc. is affiliated with the Hematologic-Physiologic Research Institute, located in Michigan. See

71)   Leviton (1997).

72)   Denys GA, Jerris RC, Swenson JM, et al. “Susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes clinical isolates to 22 antimicrobial agents.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983; 23:335-7

73)   Mattman (2008).

74)  (2010)

75)   Leviton (1997).

76)   Personal communication with Dr. Garth Nicolson.

77) (2001)


79) (2010)


81)   As the Ergonom 4000 microscope was beyond the price range of most researchers, doctors, etc., the Ergonom 3000 series was redesigned in 2010 to bring it into an affordable price range. See

82) features a video of the microscope and polymicrobial images observed.

83)   Personal communication with Dr. Joseph Mercola.

84)   Chiropractic work on the neck and upper spine can relieve allergy symptoms and migraines, according to Dr. Michael Lau, who has helped many patients at his Epic Health office in Torrance, CA.

85)   Mirotti L, Castro J, et al. “Neural Pathways in Allergic Inflammation.” Journal Allergy, volume 2010 (2010)

86)   Seidel S., Kreutzer, R., et al. “Assessment of Commercial Laboratories Performing Hair Mineral Analysis.” JAMA. 2001; 285:67-72.

87)   Mercola, JM and Watts, DL. JAMA Letter to the Editor. 2001; 285(12):1576-7.

88) (2010)

89) (2011)

90)   See for full details and references.

91) and Shoemaker (2001)



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