Chapter 5 Endnotes for Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection

Emerging Epidemics

1)      Vergano, Dan. “Bacteria Tied to Chronic Illnesses.” Medical Sentinel (1999;4:172-6).


3)      See for details.

4)      Unattributed article. “Antibiotic Provides Significant Improvement in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Online at 

5)      A chart showing co-infections and symptoms is found at (2010)

6)      Long, Pickering, and Prober (2008)

7)      For an excellent overview, see


9)      Zimmerman and Zimmerman (1996), pp.97-98.

10)   Chen, M., et al. “Antibiotics to Treat Huntington’s Disease.” Nature Medicine 2000;6:797–801.


12)   [1]See for more information on Lyme disease, and for a collection of medical journal abstracts. The website of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) is found at

13)   Nicolson, GL. “Diagnosis and Therapy of Chronic Systemic Co-infections in Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases.” Lyme Disease Diagnosis & Therapy Suggestions 2006 ACAM Meeting

14)   Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL, Haier J. “CFS Patients Subsequently Diagnosed with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi: Evidence for Mycoplasma species Co-Infections.” Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 2008; 14(4): 5-17.

15)   Check to find locations of recent outbreaks.


17)   Sodium Ascorbate can be administered by IV, by injection, or orally every 2 hours, like a drug. See (2003)

18)   Forsgren, Scott. “Mycoplasma—Often Overlooked in Chronic Lyme Disease.” Public Health Alert, v. 4, no. 7, 2009

19) (2010)

20)   See

21)   See for details of a CDC study examining the role of migrating birds as benevolent hosts to Ehrlichia-infected ticks.


23)   MacQueen DD, et al. “Genotypic Diversity of an Emergent Population of Borrelia burgdorferi at a Coastal Maine Island Recently Colonized by Ixodes scapularis.” Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Vol 12, No. XX, 2012. Online at

24)   International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) Position Paper on the CDC’S Statement Regarding Lyme Diagnosis. Full text at

25)   Burrascano, Jr., Dr. J.J. “Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease.” 16th ed. At October 2008. This is an excellent, comprehensive overview that is continually revised as new information is obtained.


27)   Bransfield, Dr. Robert. “The Neuropsychiatric Assessment of Lyme Disease.” Go to and use the search window to find this and many more articles. 

28)   Steere, AC, et al. “The emergence of Lyme disease.” J Clin Invest. 2004;113(8):1093–1101. Online at  


30)   Some of these laboratories are:,,

31)   [1]Klempner MS, et al. Intralaboratory reliability of serologic and urine testing for Lyme disease. American Journal of Medicine 110:217-219.

32)   Discussion with Dr. Garth Nicolson, March 2012. IGeneX Laboratories is located in Palo Alto, CA ( ).

33)   Statements in this chapter attributed to Dr. Burrascano are based on his presentations in Seattle at the 2011 International IFM conference on infectious diseases of the 21st Century.

34)   Autoimmunity Research Foundation’s “Recovering from Chronic Disease” Conference comment, March 2005.

35)   Find a wealth of information at



38)   Find more detail at

39)   Burrascano, “Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease.” Online at (2005)

40) discusses advanced topics in Lyme disease.


42)  (1998)

43)   [1]Op cit, Burrascano. Find details of opportunistic infections (bacteria and viruses) at (2005)

44)   Examples are,,,,, and


45)   A good place to start for multi-antibiotic protocol against LD is  (2009) and

46)   Shoemaker (2001).

47)   Dr. Shoemaker’s approach to LD is described in detail at


49) (2011)

50)   Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2009. Executive Commentary.” Online at .

51) (2010)

52)   More information with references at and  (both checked 2011)

53)   Jerome Groopman, M.D., Annals of Medicine, “Hurting All Over,” The New Yorker, November 13, 2000, p. 78. Online at

54) Also see Shoemaker (2001 and 2005)

55)   Endresen GK. “Mycoplasma blood infection in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndromes.” Rheumatol Int. 2003 Sep;23(5):211-5. Online at

56)   An excellent overview of Mycoplasma with many scientific references to its role in CFIDS, FMS, RA, and other chronic, fatiguing illnesses can be found at

57) (2008)

58)   “Evidence of neuroendocrine system dysfunction in Fibromyalgia.” Online at

59)   Rebecca C. Moore. “Neurally Mediated Hypotension and CFS: An Interview with Johns Hopkins University's Dr. Peter Rowe.” Online at Originally published in Youth Allied By CFIDS, Fall 1995. (Includes 7 supportive references).

60)   Bou-Holaigah I, et al. “Provocation of Hypotension and Pain During Upright Tilt Table Testing in Adults with Fibromyalgia.” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 15:239-246, 1997. Online at

61)   Mayo Clinic Staff. “Low blood pressure (hypotension): Treatments and drugs.” Online at (2011) Another interesting treatment that does not cure FMS but brings some relief is a method called “FibroFix” developed by Fibromyalgia sufferer Anne Hillebrand. She manages a nonprofit discussion group at   Find details and ratings of this method and others at

62)   See a free online video of an Autism Research Institute 2011 presentation “Autism as a Multisystem, Whole-Body Disorder” at

63)   MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009 Dec 18;58(10):1-20.[45 collaborators]. “Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006.” Online at

64)   Jon Baio, EdS, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. CDC. “Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008.” Centers for Disease Control’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).  Surveillance Summaries, March 30, 2012 / 61(SS03);1-19. Online at

65)   American Academy of Pediatrics (2011)

66) and



69)   Rossignal DA, Rossignol LW. “Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may improve symptoms in autistic children.” Medical Hypotheses (2006)

70)   Rossignal DA, Rossignol LW, et al. “Hyperbaric treatment for children with autism: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.” BMC Pediatrics 2009, 9:21. Online at

71)   Besides Dr. Nicolson’s considerable research at, also see

72)   Nicolson GL, Gan R, Nicolson NL, Haier J. “Evidence for Mycoplasma ssp., Chlamydia pneunomiae, and human herpes virus-6 coinfections in the blood of patients with autistic spectrum disorders.” J Neurosci Res. 2007 Apr;85(5):1143-8.

73) (1999)

74)   Cannell JJ. “On the aetiology of autism.” Acta Pædiatrica 2010 99, pp. 1128–1130. Also Levenson CW, Figueiroa SM. “Gestational vitamin D deficiency: long-term effects on the brain.” Nutr Rev 2008; 66:726–9.

75)  (2010)

76)   Annweiler C, Schott AM, et al. “Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study.” Neurology. 2010 Jan 5;74(1):27-32.

77)   Knekt  P, Kilkkinen A, et al. “Serum Vitamin D and the Risk of Parkinson Disease.” Arch Neurol. 2010;67(7):808-811

78)  (2011)


80)   Parracho M, et al. “Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children.” J. Med. Microbiol. 54, 987-991 (2005)

81) Study done by Metametrix.

82)   Valicenti-McDermott M, et al. “Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic spectrum disorders and association with family history of autoimmune disease.”  J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 27, S128-36 (2006)

83)   Frigsman A, et al. “Clinical Presentation and Histologic Findings at Ileocolonoscopy in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms.” Autism Insights 2010:2 1-11. Online at

84)   Diaz Heijtz R, et al. “Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2011)

85)   Unattributed, from the Behavioural Neurothrapy Clinic, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia. “Cellular malnutrition and Intestinal Dysbiosis in Autism.” Online at (2010)

86)   Fasano, Dr. Alessio. Presentation at April 2010 DAN! Conference in Baltimore, MD. “Intestine, Leaky Gut, and Autism: A Serendipitous Association of a Planned Design?”

87)   Vojdani A, “A Gut Feeling for Immune Dysregulation & Neuroinfalmmation in Autrism” (2008). Online at



90)   See collected research at

91)   “Autism and Vaccines Around the World: Vaccine Schedules, Autism Rates, and Under 5 Mortality”. Special Report by Generation Rescue, Inc. April 2009. Online at


93)   Graham M, Edwards MJ. “Teratogen Update: Gestational Effects of Maternal Hyperthermia Due to Febrile Illnesses and Resultant Patterns of Defects in Humans.” Teratology 58: 209–21. 1998.

94)   Conversation with Dr. Hawkins Kirk, February, 2011.


96) (1982)

97)   Hynynen K, et al. “Potential adverse effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound exposure on blood vessels in vivo.” Online at

98) (2002) and also


100)   Rados, Carol. 2004. FDA Cautions Against Ultrasound "Keepsake" Images. FDA Consumer Magazine. Online at

101)   Barnard, J, et al. "Autism in schools: Crisis or challenge?" The National Autistic Society. Full report online at

102)   John Stone. “UK Government Farce Over New Adult Autism Study.” Coverups appear to be worldwide. See collected research at

103)   “Autism: The Grand Cause 2012.” Online at


105)   Excellent examples are and  . Case studies and therapy information can be found at

106)   “Basic pathogenetic considerations.” In: Espinoza LR, et al. (1988) pp. 125-9. Also see “Leaky Gut Syndromes: Breaking the Vicious Cycle” by Dr. Leo Galland, M.D. Online at

107)   Conversation with Dr. Marge Crandall, microbiologist specializing in Candida and owner of Testing and diagnosis services are provided, along with physician referrals.

108)   Saliva test kits sold by Bio Health Diagnostics,

109)   See They offer a physician referral network at and articles linking specific conditions (e.g., autism) with food allergies. See 


111)   Sherris D, et al. “Mayo Clinic Study Implicates Fungus as Cause of Chronic Sinusitis.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, September 1999.

112)   Dr. Joseph Mercola, comparing unnecessary sinus surgery to routine gallbladder removal as “another major tragedy in medicine.” For proposed alternatives to sinus surgery see






118)   “Rare, Aggressive Fungus Strikes Joplin Tornado Victims.” KMOX/AP, June 10, 2011. Unattributed feature.

119)   When aerosolized they have the potential for use as biological warfare toxins of the type called “yellow rain” allegedly used during the late 1970s in Laos, Kampuchea, and Afghanistan.

120)   Sherris, et al. Mayo Clinic Proceedings  (1999).

121)   Shoemaker (2010)

122) and Shoemaker (2001 and 2005)


124)   Dr. Omar M. Amin. “Understanding Parasites” Parasitology Center, Scottsdale, AZ. (2010).

125)   “UFOs of the Intestines.” (review) J. Rheum. 1998, 25 (11) 2181-6.

126)   Wyburn-Mason (1983).

127)   Perry Chapdelaine, a science fiction writer and colleague of Isaac Asimov and A.E. Van Vogt, later wrote non-fiction books and articles for the Arthritis Trust under the pseudonym Anthony di Fabio (his birth name). The decades-long association between Dr. Prosch and Chapdelaine/di Fabio, late founder of the Arthritis Trust of America, was documented in The Townsend Letter, Aug-Sept, 2005. Online at 

128)   Dr. Joseph Mercola has achieved the same high cure rate following Dr. Brown's antibiotic treatment protocol for mycoplasmal infection. He first recommends attention to nutrition and allergies, as well as emotional and environmental factors, before introducing any medications.

129)   Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication usually prescribed in low doses to treat Amoebiasis and Tricomonas Vaginitis.


131) (2000)

132)   See for details on a variety of blood disorders.

133)   Dr. Edwin A. Deitch, MD. “Role of the Gut in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome.” Online at (2004)

134) (2010)

135)   Bacteria associated with many forms of arthritis are shown at

136)   Nicolson, G.L., Nasralla, M.Y., Haier, J., Erwin, R., Nicolson, N.L., and Ngwenya, R. “Mycoplasmal Infections in Chronic Illnesses: Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, HIV-AIDS and Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Medical Sentinel 4:172-176, 1999.

137)   Melbourne Forensic Diagnostic Services. Sensitive Method for the Quantitative Detection of Mycoplasma Infections and Its Relevance to Disease. ” Technical Newsletter #2. 1999.

138)   Baseman and Tully, at


139)   An example is the 1993 docudrama/teleplay by Arnold Schulman based on the best-selling 1987 non-fiction book And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic by the late Randy Shilts.

140)   For an excellent account of the politicization of the HIV epidemic, see Garrett (1995) chapter 14.

141)   Funding comparisons at (2007-2011)

142)   Piret J, Desormeaux A, Bergeron MG. “Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, a Microbicide Effective Against Enveloped and Nonenveloped Viruses.” Current Drug Targets, Volume 3, Number 1, February 2002, pp. 17-30(14). Online at

143)   Dr. CS Dayrit. “Coconut oil in health and disease: its and monolaurin's potential as cure for HIV/AIDS.” Indian Coconut Journal, Cochin. Online at (2000)

144)   Insights in this section are based on an IFM presentation by Dr. Lyn Patrick, ND entitled “Hepatitis B/C: The Quiet Epidemic.” April, 2011.

145)   Geier DA, Geier MR. “A case-control study of serious autoimmune adverse events following hepatitis B immunization.” Autoimmunity. 2005 Jun;38(4):295-301.

146)   WHO. “Viral hepatitis: Report by the Secretariat.” March 2010. Online at

147)   Antonelli, A., et al. “Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Hepatitis C Infection.” JAMA. 1999;281(17):1588. Online at


149)   Los Angeles Times, November 8, 2010.

150)   Dr. Lyn Patrick, op cit.

151) (2011)

152)   A useful discussion forum is


154)   Jeannot E, Boorman GA, et al. “Increased incidence of aflatoxin B1-induced liver tumors in hepatitis virus C transgenic mice.” International journal of cancer. ISSN: 0020-7136. 2011. Online at

155)   USDA “Grain Fungal Diseases & Mycotoxin Reference.” (2006)


157)   This is according to each agency’s mission statement. See the home pages of the FDA and the CDC on the Internet.

158)   Associated Press (unattributed). “Bad Blood Between FDA, Red Cross.” CBS/AP News online, Washington, D.C., December 1, 2000. See,1597,254190-412,00.shtml

159)  (2011)

160)   “Consumer Advocate Urges Action on Blood-Supply Safety” (Reuters Health) December 2003.

161) (2006)

162)   Details at Enter “donor screening assay” in the search window. (2009)

163)   Feldman, EA and Bayer R. “Blood Safety in the Age of AIDS.” At (11/2004)

164)   [1]Sarkar S. “Artificial blood.” Indian J Crit Care Med 2008;12:140-4. Online at

165) Also 


167)   Kevin Deane, MD. “Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases.” (2011)


169)   Details at


171)  (2009)

172)   Longbottom, D. “Chlamydial vaccine development.” J Med Microbiol July 2003 vol. 52 no. 7 537-540; Levine MM, Kotloff KL, et al. “Clinical trials of Shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road.” Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 Jul;5(7):540-53; Atkins, HS, Morton, M, et al. “Recombinant Salmonella vaccines for biodefence.” Vaccine Volume 24, Issue 15, April 2006, pp. 2710-17; Prucca CG, Slavin I, et al. “Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is regulated by RNA interference.” Nature 456, 750-754 (11 Dec 2008)  and Pechine S, Janoir C, et al. “Diminished intestinal colonization by Clostridium difficile and immune response in mice after mucosal immunization with surface proteins of C. difficile.Vaccine. May 2007.


173)   Blaylock RL, M.D..” The danger of excessive vaccination during brain development: the case for a link to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).” This 2008 article and all Dr. Blaylock’s published papers and articles can be found on his website,

174)   Prandota J. "Urinary Tract Diseases Revealed after DTP Vaccination in Infants and Young Children." American Journal of Therapeutics. 2004; 11(5):344-353.

175)   Pukhalsky AL, et al. “Cytokine profile after rubella vaccine inoculation: evidence of the immunosuppressive effect of vaccination.” Mediators Inflamm. 2003 August; 12(4): 203–207.


177)   Presentation “Controversies in Vaccinations” at the 2011 IFM International Symposium in Bellevue, WA.


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