Chapter 7 Endnotes for Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection

Natural Methods to Revitalize the Immune System  

1)      Cox (1984) p. 23.

2)      A scientific and philosophic rule requiring that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex, or that explanations of unknown phenomena be sought first in terms of known quantities. Named for William of Occam, 1836.


4)      Trager (1987)

5)      The Arthritis Foundation describes three categories of exercise at (2011)

6) (2011)

7) (2011) and

8)      Studies at Fairview General Hospital; in Keough (1986) p. 76.


10) (2008)

11)   Brena, SF, Chapman, SL, Decker, R. “Chronic Pain as a Learned Experience,” in Ng (1981) pp. 76-83. Also the Coalition Against Insurance Fraud’s

12)   Tietelbaum, J. “Fighting those persistent infections in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.” From Fatigued to Fantastic Newsletter 2000 and 2001; 3(3) and 4(1). 

13)   Crue, Jr., Benjamin L. “The Neurophysiology and Taxonomy of Pain,” in Brena and Chapman (1983) pp. 25-27.

14)   Examples are Lecron (1964), Straus (1982), and Cousins (1981).

15)   Kroger, W. S. (2008)

16)   Author’s personal experience using hypnosis with a family friend.

17)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kabat-Zinn J, Wheeler E, et al. “Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin-clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA).” Psychosomatic Medicine 1998 September/October;60(5):625-632.

18)   American Society of Clinical Hypnosis website is

19)   Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis website is

20)   More information is available at A detailed description, with videos, appears at

21)   Noto Y, Kudo, M, Hirota K. “Back massage therapy promotes psychological relaxation and an increase in salivary chromogranin A release.” Journal of Anesthesia 2010, Volume 24, Number 6, Pages 955-958. Also Noto Y, Kitajima M, et al. “Leg massage therapy promotes psychological relaxation and reinforces the first-line host defense in cancer patients.” Ibid, Pages 827-831.

22)   See Lidell (1984), Jarney and Tindall (1991), Namikoshi (1974) and Tappan (1988).

23)   More detail and case histories at

24)   National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (April, 2008). Postpolio syndrome. Online at


26)   Oppewal S. "Sister Elizabeth Kenny, an Australian nurse, and treatment of poliomyelitis victims." Image J Nurs Sch 29 (1): 83–7. (1997)

27) (2008)

28)   Dr. Robert S. Wallis. “Reconsidering Adjuvant Immunotherapy for Tuberculosis.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 41:201–8. Online at

29)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For a list of NST practitioners in the United States and Canada see The Bowen Research & Training Institute, North Palm Harbor, FL Institute is a nonprofit corporation. Contact: (727) 937-9077. See for details. “Neural Touch” is another method to consider. See

30)   See,, and 

31) gives an excellent overview of NST.

32)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Book examples are Kauz (1974) and Chuen (1994). DVD examples are “Tai Chi for Arthritis - 12 Lessons with Dr. Paul Lam.” (2009) and Terence Dunn’s “ Tai Chi for Health: Yang Long Form.” (2004)

33)   See or

34)   See (American Society for the Alexander Technique);;

35) (2011)  Also see Cousens, Dr. Gabriel (1999) and the Hallelujah Diet at


37)   Clark (1997) p. 24.

38)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Toivanen (1988)  p. 16 and pp. 155-7.

39)   See 

40)   See Some may find this 3-part nutritional program difficult to follow, but the benefits are extraordinarily effective. Dr. Mercola emphasizes that other factors must also be considered (spiritual, emotional, and environmental) if the regimen fails to work over time. Also see

41)   Emsley (1999)

42)   Mandell (1988)

43)   Ulene (1998)

44) and Airola (1974).

45)  (2011)

46)   Mayo Clinic Staff. “Low blood pressure (hypotension): Treatments and drugs.” Online at (2011)

47)   For more information about the benefits of water, see

48)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Helpful websites on this topic are and


50)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (2004)

51)   Grayston, JT, M.D. “Antibiotic Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.” Circulation. 2003;107:12281230.


53)   More detail and supportive references can be found at  

54)   Scott ME, Koski KG. “Zinc deficiency impairs immune responses against parasitic nematode infections at intestinal and systemic sites.” J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5S Suppl):1412S-20S. Online at

55)  See ongoing research at 

56)   Also see Garten (1978) for excellent information on dental infections and metal amalgams.

57)   CNN report. “FDA revisits mercury fillings.” Online at


59) and also (2001)

60)   Sittig (2002)

61)   Gaetke LM and Chow CK. “Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients.” Toxicolog. Volume 189, Issues 1-2, 15 July 2003, Pages 147-163. Online at

62)   Wei, Hao. “Copper Chelation and Vascular Inflammation.” Linus Pauling Institute, OSU. Online at (2009)

63)   Eck, Dr. Paul C., Wilson, Dr. Larry. “Copper Toxicity.” Analytical Research Labs, Inc. Online at (1989)

64)   Find an excellent overview at


66)   Find data on iron toxicity effects and treatment, including hair analysis testing methods at  (2011)

67) Also see

68)   More at (Nov 2010)

69)   Liu CY, Hsu YH, Wu MT, et al. “Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: a population based case-control study.” BMC Cancer. 2009 Jan 13;9:15.

70)   Larsson, SC, Orsini, N., Wolk, A. “Processed Meat Consumption and Stomach Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol 98, no. 15, August 2006

71)   Wellness Directory of Minnesota. “Hidden Hazards in Common Foods” (11/2010) hidden_h.htm#Pickles and Salted Foods

72) (2010)



75)   Weil (1988) and (1997)

76)   Gorman, Christine. “Can the Juice!” TIME, May 21, 2001.

77)   See

78)   See Dr. Mercola’s Vitamin D Resource Page (2011)

79) shows a detailed history of the development of the Marshall Protocol, with hot links to many informative publications and research findings.

80) and Weaver JT “Health Corner” article on calcium at

81) (2006)

82)   Greger, Dr. Michael, M.D., “Paratuberculosis and Crohn’s Desease: Got Milk?” January 2001. At This is a particularly thorough discussion, documented in detail.




86)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.

87)  (2010)


89)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      American Dietetic Association and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Lactose Intolerance: A Resource Including Recipes. Food Sensitivity Series, 1991.  “What People With Lactose Intolerance Need to Know About Osteoporosis.” Online at

90)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Many websites provide a wealth of information for the lactose intolerant. Use Google with search keywords such as: lactose, lactase, dairy, milk allergy, calcium.

91)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Enig and Fallon (1998/1999).


93)   Lafferty, Dr. Lynn and Jason Updike. “The Pancreas and Blood Sugar.” Online at (2011)




97) (2009).


99) Label information with ingredients shown.

100) (2009)

101) (2008)

102) . Also see Warburg (1966).

103)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (2010)

104)   Foods listed as 5% or less for sodium are low in sodium. Anything above 20% for sodium is considered high. Look for “%DV” (Daily Value) on the label.

105)   “Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Omega 3 Fatty Acid In Fish Oil Linked To Lowering Of Prostaglandin.” Dr. William L. Smith described his findings on April 4 at Experimental Biology 2006 in San Francisco. His presentation was part of the program of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB).

106)   Zinc is an important metalloenzyme. See

107)   Mandell (1988)


109)   Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration. “Secondary prevention of vascular disease by prolonged antiplatelet treatment.” British Medical Journal 1988;296:320. Online at

110)   Wayne Martin. “Alternatives to aspirin for prevention of heart attack and stroke - Letter to the Editor.” Townsend Letter.

111)   “Dangers of Aspirin,” an excerpt from Bypassing Bypass (2007)

112)   Gaby, AR, M.D. “Nutritional Treatments for Acute Myocardial Infarction.” Altern Med Rev 2010;15(2):113-123. Online at

113) (October 2010)

114)   Törüner M. “Aspirin and gastrointestinal toxicity.” Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2007 Dec;7 Suppl 2:27-30. Online at

115)   Howenstine, J., MD. “Does Aspirin Prevent Heart Attacks and Strokes?” Online at (April, 2004)

116)   de Jong PT, et al. “Associations between Aspirin Use and Aging Macula Disorder The European Eye Study.” Ophthalmology. 2012 Jan;119(1):112-8. Online:  at  and

117)   Kronmal RA, et al. “Aspirin Use and Incident Stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study.”  Stroke 29, 887-894 (1998). Online at

118)   Schernhammer ES, et al. “A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of pancreatic cancer in women.” J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jan 7;96(1):22-8. Online at

119)   Chan Atet al. “Aspirin and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Relation to the Expression of COX-2.” N Engl J Med 2007; 356:2131-2142. Online at

120)   Skinner, HG, et al. “Vitamin D Intake and the Risk for Pancreatic Cancer in Two Cohort Studies.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev September 2006 15; 1688. Online at

121)   Overview of pancreatic cancer at

122)   Many study references on the benefits of DHA and EPA in fish oil at



125)   More detail and supportive references can be found at

126)   Find an online guide to fats at and also at (2011)

127)   Wicke, RW. “Health fads from hell: margarine, canola oil, soy foods, green/black tea.” Herbalist Review, Issue 2000 #4. Online at

128)   Allen, J. "Canola — Canada's Oil Spill Onto The American Market.” Online at (2000)

129)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Erasmus (1999)

130)   Jim Lynn, "Canola Oil — Deadly for the Human Body!" Online at 

131)   Fallon and Enig (1999)

132) (2010)

133)   Find an online guide to fats at and also at (2011)

134) (1997)



137)   Unattributed feature. “Health Quiz: the Big Fat Facts.” Natural Health, May 2000. Also, Van Dusen, A. “Worst Trans-Fatty Foods.” Forbes, December 5, 2006.

138)   Gerson and Bishop (2007) pages 65 - 71.

139)   Wang Z, et al. “Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease.” Nature 472, p.57–63 (07 April 2011) Online at




143) (2011)

144)   Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report (2002)


146)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Enig and Fallon (1998/1999).

147)   National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (revised Feb 2010)



150)   Ely JTA and Krone CA. “A Brief Update on Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10).” Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 2000; 15(2):63-68. Online at


152)   J American Oil Chemists Society 63;40: 464 and also Science 74;155:222

153)   Unattributed feature. “Common Dietary Fat and Intestinal Microbes Linked to Heart Disease.” ScienceDaily (Apr. 6, 2011) Online at

154)   Zeisek SH, et al. “Conversion of Dietary Choline to Trimethylamine and Dimethylamine in Rats: Dose-Response Relationship.” J. Nutr. 119: 800-804, 1989. Online at

155) (2011)


157)   Enig and Fallon (1998/1999).

158)   Dr, Atkins’ many publications and a free newsletter are available at


160)   Allen, J. "Canola — Canada's Oil Spill Onto The American Market.” Online at (2000)

161) (2004)



164) (2004)

165)   Holladay SD. “Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.” Environ Health Perspect. 1999 October; 107(Suppl 5): 687–691.

166) (2005)


168) (June 2010)


170)   Three example references: Mayer KE, Myers RP, Lee SS. “Silymarin treatment of viral hepatitis: a systematic review.” J Viral Hepat 2005;12(6): 559-67. Also see Salmi HA, Sarna S. “Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional, and morphological alterations of the liver. A double-blind controlled study.” Scand J Gastroenterol 1982; 17(4): 517-21. And also Mira L, Silva M, Manso CF. “Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by silibinin dihemisuccinate.” Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 48(4): 753-9. See unattributed article. “ Silymarin: A Potent Antioxidant, Liver Protector, and Anti-Cancer Agent. ” Online at (2011)

171)   Chlorella’s properties are lauded by Dr. Mercola here:

172)   Swanson HI, Njar VCO, et al. “Targeting Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes for Effective Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy.” 2010 Symposium Article. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Vol 38, No. 4

173)   Go to the and use the search window for specific descriptions and antitoxin treatments.

174)   Also see and

175)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and

176)   Many articles about vitamin C applications and dosage, with references, are at

177)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For example, and A powerful search engine such as Google can be given specific keywords. E.g., [ulcer herbal] which yield suggestions to try ginger and licorice.

178)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This database can be found at

179)   Discussion with Dr. Tsuyoshi Okada, MD, 2010.

180)   Nicolson, G.L.; Nasralla, M.Y.; Franco, A.R.; Nicolson, N.L.; Erwin, R.; Ngwenya, R. and Berns, P.A. “Diagnosis and Integrative Treatment of Intracellular Bacterial Infections in Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Other Chronic Illnesses.” Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine 1(2):92-102;2000.

181)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Talbott, S. “Performance in a Pill? Introduction to Dietary Supplements.” Nutrition, October 2010.

182)   Simon, Nissa. “Most Patients Don’t Tell Their Doctors They Take Supplements.” AARP Bulletin, November 16, 2010.

183)   Public Law 103-417 103rd Congress.

184)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         FunctionClaims/default.htm. (2010)

185)   Ely JTA and Krone CA. “A Brief Update on Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10).” Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 2000; 15(2):63-68. Online at

186)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (2011)



189) and Littarru (1994)

190)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (2008) 

191)   Adams, M. “Vitamin D Myths, Facts, and Statistics” (January 2005) Also Dr. Mercola’s Vitamin D Resource Page (2011)


193)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eisenstein and Scheiner (1997) offer a detailed discussion of USDA-recommended daily allowances versus actual nutritional content in the American diet. The authors also explain the importance of maintaining the correct level of pantothenic acid (significantly higher than the 10 mg recommended) to enhance the immune system. Examples of common grocery item labels illustrate misleading and/or deficient nutritional values.

194) and



197)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Krinsky, Dr. Norman, Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine; also Coco, Donna. “The Numbers Game.” Natural Health, May 1999; and “Vitamin Overdose.” TIME, April 24, 2000.

198)   For a comprehensive analysis of deficiency symptoms, recommended doses and possible side effects, use the search window to enter specific vitamins at

199)   Weber, Charles. “Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment by Potassium” at  (2011)

200)   Merchant, Tenna. “Aluminum-hydroxide in vaccines causes serious health problems.” (2007)

201) (2004)

202)   Chlorella’s properties are lauded by Dr. Mercola here:

203)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is a matter of some controversy, but the individual on a strict vegetarian diet should be on guard for signs of protein deficiency and bring the body back to balance with supplements should that condition occur. Tempeh is an excellent source of protein. Tofu is also a good protein substitute, but is high in fat content. The fewer animal products eaten, the less vitamin D we get, so vegetarians should also be careful regarding levels of vitamin D. His assertion is also met with opposition from the vegetarian community. This author merely signals a warning and does not intend to engender debate.

204)   Find information from a nutritionist on vegan protein deficiency here:

205)   [1] Several excellent articles about mycoplasmas and nutritional protocols to combat them can be found at  A more in-depth technical article for doctors with many links to free, full journal articles is at

206) (June 2011)


208) (2000)

209)   Warner, J. “Decaf Coffee Isn’t Caffeine-Free.” Online at

210)   National Institutes of Health. “Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT).” and Clegg D, et al. Glucosamine, Chondroitin Sulfate, and the Two in Combination for Painful Knee Osteoarthritis. NEJM, 2006;354:795-808


212)   Bahr and Maehlum (2004)





Return to End Notes Directory