Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ascorbic Acid (AA):

INDEX   2017 Revisited Update  PubMed Article  AA Utilization Factors
  1. What the ½  hour blood AA half-lifetime means 
  2. AA Pharmacokinetics & PharmacoDynamics
  3. Ascorbic Acid In Vivo Is Highly Dynamic
  4. Rapid Onset Scurvy
  5. Liposomal Encapsulated AA (L-AA) Bypass the gut transport limits to oral AA intake.
  6. L-AA and Liver Function Lipid encapsulated AA aids liver in toxin handling.
  7. Archive of historical AA Papers  Science ignored for >60 years.
  8. Determining AA Levels: High variability in physiology & needs.
  9. AA and Oxides react disabling AA, making DHA, an oxidizing molecule.
  10. Healthy vs Infected: AA needs vary widely  = thousands times greater than RDA.
  11. Pub Med article AA half lifetime is ½ hour Source of the persistence measure.
  12. Presumed AA blood depletion levels based on half-lifetime High ROS: Tissue AA loss > 2 hrs.
  13. Why Many Ascorbic Acid Experiments are Flawed   High depletion rate and rapid oxidation of AA ignored
  14. Glucose – AA antagonism  increases the basic need to 5-10 grams per day.
  15. Vitamin C and Oxygen Transport  AA and CoQ10 increase oxygen transport
  16. Allergic To Vitamin C Or Something Else?  Maybe not
  17. How do we “catch” a cold? Latent microbes are activated by falling AA levels and stress
  18. AA Vs. Cancer Update: Web Findings & Notes    L-AA provides a new therapeutic range AA dosage potentiating chemotherapy.
  19. Successful AA Anti-Cancer Clinical Results Summary discussion elsewhere.
  20. Our ongoing AA web research: AA vs. Cancer  More collected findings.
  21. AA Is A Universal And Quick-Acting Anti-Toxin  Links to Klenner’s quick cure case histories  Table A.
  22. Pharmacological effects of AA  How it works; What it does.  How Vitamin C Works
  23. Suggested Amounts And Rates Of Vitamin C Intake  Depending on circumstances
  24. Ascorbate Dosage levels More physiology factors determine needs.
  25. Dr. Cathcart’s Table of Vitamin C Dosage See Cathcart’s website in References.
  26. Ketosis Case History (HK)  Reduce the blood sugar and AA works better.
  27. AA Studies summarized at NIH  The problematic official “scurvy does not exist”
  28. Avg 2x RDA Intake Leads To 9-13% Critical And 18-24% Marginal AA Blood Levels:
  29. 2004 Petition to re evaluate Vitamin C RDA Based on latest scientific findings
  30. Vitamin C RDA is too low: Flawed science; Uncorrected mistakes; Official stupor; No corrections =>Approval of malpractice.
·        ½ Hour Half-Life For Vitamin C Was Ignored

·        A Single RDA Is Not For Everybody; Upper safe limit is bogus

·        Contradictory Data

·        Tolerable Upper Limit Also Flawed

  1. FDA's 2011 scheme to outlaw nutritional supplements Bad science leads to bad regulations.
  2. Table A  Antiviral, Antibacterial, Antitoxin actions of Ascorbate  Notes from Dr. Levy’s book:  Curing the Incurable
  3. Table 2 Vitamin C References Our website and a few others.
  4. Dr Ely’s Dr Cathcart and Dr. Klenner’s articles  Better science: Ignored experience and wisdom.
  5. Our Infection Connection Writings on Nutrition  Table of Articles with hotlinks.
  6. Authoritative Nutritional Reference Websites   Where to find more nutrition info.
  7. Our Ongoing Research Articles Index


Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ascorbic Acid (AA):

What the ½  hour blood half-lifetime means   Vitamin C Calamity


AA Pharmacokinetics (Pk) is what the body does to the drug;  pharmacodynamics (Pd) is how the drug effects the body and its target organs, biological functions, chemical processes and/or microbes and parasites.

AA Pk deals with how it is administered effectively in what form, amounts and frequencies.  AA is in foods, more in certain sources.  AA is supplemented by oral uptake in the gut, by injection and via IV infusions directly into the blood. Oral intake has many forms (AA, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, and ascorbyl palmitate), the most effective gut-to-blood uptake is Liposomal AA where ~95% is transferred vs. less than 15% for water-soluble forms of AA.  Pk deals with rates of change in concentration: how & where & how much & how fast it is distributed, stored, converted, metabolized and eliminated.

AA Pharmacodynamics (Pd) deals with how it acts, where it acts, and when. It acts, taking an active part of the body’s functioning biochemistry. It performs protective functions, blocks enzymes, disables a wide range of toxins, inhibits cortisone-related degeneration, restores immune system activity, and acts as an antibiotic in sufficient quantities.  AA presence and absence affects (changes) many functional processes, and has many consequential effects. Thousands of articles have been published worldwide over the last century about how AA works.


Ascorbic Acid In Vivo Is Highly Dynamic.

It is an essential molecule used in countless vital chemical pathways.

Many experiments and conclusions about vitamin C (AA) have not taken account of the high reaction rates, short store-away times, and excretion/depletion rates of this highly reactive molecule. It is like trying to put a tiny amount of water in a bucket with a large hole in the bottom a little bit each day and measuring the effect over days months or years. Most of the time the bucket is empty, AA is depleted, but we have been thinking we are measuring what we put in.

 One rat experiment with pneumonia proved that AA kept the rat alive with frequent low doses and concluded that AA was worthless, because when AA was stopped, the rat died. Rats make AA, (humans do not) but rats did not make enough AA to stop this particular tough bug. What ethical doctor would deny a medicine (or food) that works for a patient and stop giving it because he knew that on stopping the patient is sure to die. Most likely if it helped he would give more, like Dr Klenner did and found that it killed all the viruses if the dosage was high enough in the therapeutic range and administered 24/7 at effective concentrations. The important conclusion: there is no unsafe upper limit for AA. Only unsafe too-low administration amounts when the patient is in crisis.

Some physiologies include dependencies, like dependency on food.  If we mistakenly call a food a “vitamin” and we ration food like vitamins with low RDAs, should we be surprised that the patients will starve? 

So it is with Scurvy and Life extension. See Ely(7) and the related pictures showing age regression with adequate high levels of AA, CoQ10, and Lysine.  AA starvation shows up as premature aging. Statins induce scurvy; they increase the rate of aging. Part of the aging is reversible, given a similar diet to Ely’s.

On taking AA I notice in about 15 minutes the increase of the pressure in my eyes’ lenses, where AA is stored, as the focus snaps into clarity from the depleted blurred state.  When fighting illness the reaction or depletion times are about ½ hour to diminish symptoms to about 3 hours til their return.  Who in practice measures blood AA every few minutes?  Who measures the AA/DHA ratio as an indicator of biochemical vitality? They should, it is a wonderful criticality-measure, predictive of end state lifetime.  Make the ratio better, and mortality and morbidity are greatly reduced. Patient comfort is improved in many ways.

What is important is AA in the tissues where it is stored and depleted from. This too is dynamic. Study the course of Marburg to see how fast the reactions can take.  This is scurvy as fast as it works.  Scurvy can act slowly too, over months to years.  It depends on our ROS/NOS levels, which increase with age and infection load. Venoms work by depleting AA rapidly.

So experiments similar to a hypothetical ten year, 200,000 healthy patients, less than one gram per day studies are like covering a large rock with paint so thin that it does not cover the whole rock, only a part of it for a molecule thick and lasting only a few minutes per day, until the paint coverage evaporates away. No wonder that the effectiveness of AA is like a no-se-eum.

Later we will see a FDA AA Studies collection of partly flawed long-term AA experiments. It is hard work to see the flaws but the inconsistencies need resolving on the functional chemistry level.  Scurvy is a slow AA depletion in a healthy person. Rapid onset scurvy (anascorbemia) is rapid oxidation of AA to DHA. In both cases the antioxidant AA goes critically low.

The challenge to science today is to rethink the entire body of evidence in all the AA Historical Archive AA Papers and AA effectiveness, disproving experiments and to revalidate/disprove parts of all of them. Re-considering the AA molecular dynamics that have been reported and can be measured.  AA’s oxidation rates are high, it is metabolized within minutes, it changes from active AA(reducing) to DHA(oxidizing) instantly.


Rapid Onset Scurvy

When AA is oxidized it loses two electrons, it can no longer donate electrons to chemical pathway processes. The electron orbital paths of DHA shift-around into a different shape than for AA.  When oxidized, the AA molecule changes shape. DHA no longer fits into other molecules in the same way as AA; DHA interacts differently; and vital chemical reactions, all that depend on AA, just stop reacting and changing. All vital AA-dependent reactions stop or slow at the same time. This is so similar to anaphylaxis it may be the same. AA instantly reverses anaphylaxis. Adrenaline causes the one-time release of about 5 grams of AA.

When AA is converted to DHA the AA/DHA ratio shifts towards 1 and below, the AA in the blood goes below the critical level and histamine release explodes exponentially.  Blood vessels start to leak and systemic bleeding starts nearly everywhere, brain, eyes, lungs, kidneys … all hemorrhage, especially in the gut where you see tarry stools. Just study the hemorrhagic fevers pathologies. These are the classic pathologies of end-state scurvy, in the extreme. 

Or see here an analysis of medical ignorance in Florida, ignoring ascorbate pharmacodynamics, ignoring the scurvy.  Kalokerinos post mortem of baby Yurkos. 

In cases of AA depletion and rapid oxidation to DHA in the presence of toxemia and inflammation cascade the amounts of needed life-saving AA are in the hundreds of grams per day by IV. Levy reports that Liposomal AA (L-AA) is about 8 times more effective than IV on a molecular weight equivalent dosage.  L-AA should be supplemented by oral AA administered every few minutes in doses of several grams per 100 kg of body weight.  Liposomal AA does not induce gut looseness.  In case of toxemia from antibiotics killing chronic infection microbes and releasing endotoxins, Angiotensin Release Blockers (ARBs) are helpful as an adjunct to reduce the immune cytokine cascade.

AA in the blood is stored/released quickly, it is blocked by sugar, and excess if any is excreted rapidly.  Studies that show “AA is resident for weeks” are not relevant to the acute-infection conditions, toxemia, venom poisoning, hyper allergy flares, COPD exacerbations, and to the poly-infected, subclinical, scurvy-state of older persons and certainly not for the physiology of rapid onset scurvy and anaphylaxis.


Liposomal Encapsulated AA (L-AA)

 A significant pharmaceutical breakthrough in formulation.

The gut transport of water soluble AA to the blood is rate-limited; this limits the therapeutic amount of AA in the blood to levels below those that are medically effective. Plasma levels above 280 m/ML have selectively killed cancer, bacteria and viruses (in laboratory experiments), and need to be achieved using oral doses of vitamin C.  In Pharmacokinetics of Oral Vitamin C by Hickey, Roberts And Miller state:

“Investigations of the effects of Liposomal and standard formulation ascorbate showed that blood plasma levels in excess of the previously assumed maximum of 220 m/ML are possible. Large oral doses of Liposomal ascorbate resulted in plasma levels above 400 m/ML.

Conclusions. Since a single oral dose can produce plasma levels in excess of 400 m/ML, pharmacokinetic theory suggests that repeated doses could sustain levels well above the formerly assumed maximum. These results have implications for the use of ascorbate, as a nutrient and as a drug. For example, a short in vitro treatment of human Burkitt’s lymphoma cells with ascorbate, at 400 mML, has been shown to result in 50% cancer cell death. Using frequent oral doses, an equivalent plasma level could be sustained indefinitely. Thus, oral vitamin C has potential for use as a non-toxic, sustainable, therapeutic agent.”

With L-AA there is now a practical way around the AA intake-rate barrier that previously limited AA therapeutic effectiveness by too low blood concentrations.  The goal is to achieve in vivo concentrations as high as in vitro kill levels for microbes and cancer cells.

A phospholipid emulsifier (Lecithin) and a simple ultrasound emulsifier process can be used to combine these two nutritional off the shelf elements to make a super-effective, encapsulated L-AA nutritional product having superior therapeutic properties and better target-cell AA transfer properties.

Encapsulating the AA with a phospholipid coating (Lecithin emulsifier) increases gut to blood transport. Conventional AA intake efficiency is dependent on scurvy state and can range from a >60% scurvy to <20% healthy percent. Normally without scurvy, blood uptake is less than 15%.  The Lecithin contains molecules that also enhance neural function. The lecithin nano envelope facilitates AA delivery, better passing the blood brain barrier, allowing AA to act against brain infections and dissolving plaques in arteries and in the brain. More AA in the brain improves the therapeutics: slowing or reversing the progress of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

With L-AA the transport of the encapsulated AA to the blood rises to a reported level of 93-98% efficiency.  The ‘loose gut at high AA intake’ phenomenon does not happen.  This means that oral L-AA intake can easily yield blood AA levels higher than for conventional AA IV and AA injection methods. 

Need for multiple IVs and infusions of sodium AA by a practitioner are no longer necessary.  You can doctor yourself, depending on your medical condition and get continuous AA blood levels that are pharmacologically high enough to work well against infections, viruses, and cancer cells. You can feel yourself when you are low on AA and need to take more.  This means that the historical articles by Klenner and Cathcart can be used as a guide to self treat at the antibiotic/antiviral drug use, high levels they found successful so many times.  We now have a low cost broad-spectrum antiviral, antibacterial and antitoxin drug that is completely safe.  See Table A notes from Dr Thomas Levy’s book, Curing the Incurable.

A more complete description of L-AA is found in our L-AA Case Histories. Video with the recipe for making L-AA from off the shelf nutritionals is found on Utube.  Commercial L-AA is also available on with reviews showing positive statistics.  Dr Thomas Levy’s book Curing the Incurable describes the details and the successes. Explore the above links. 

To further make the higher blood levels of AA from L-AA intake, also eliminate HFCS sweetened foods and drinks. Add sunflower seeds to berry shakes made from plain yogurt and ice. Use Xylitol to sweeten things and in your cooking.  Xylitol is described in our paper AA Ketonic Protocols.


L-AA and Liver Function

Lipid encapsulated AA aids the liver by boosting its toxin handling capabilities.

The liver and spleen are primary organs for blood cleaning.  It is known that lecithin encapsulated AA is better absorbed by the liver compared to water-soluble AA forms. Both should be supplied together.   L-AA is separated from its envelope in the liver, making the AA available locally for toxin removal, and providing a supply of water soluble AA to supplement the AA from the gut.  The liver can supply excess AA to the blood when fed more L-AA than it needs. 


Since AA has neutralizing capabilities for a very wide range of toxins (See Table A) one would expect a boost in liver functions. The lipid envelope provides preferential liver tropic and lipid-enveloped viruses absorption for the AA payload.  Palm and coconut oil components might be alternative liposome envelope ingredients. They act in the gut to dissolve the lipid membrane of the HIV virus.


Tropical saturated oils especially coconut and palm oils (with and without AA payloads) might act in the liver, in the same way as in the gut, to combat hepatitis viruses.  It remains to be seen what the ideal Liposomal envelopes and payloads would be.  Lecithin vs. tropic oils and Vitamin C vs. Quercetin provide at least four envelope-payload combinations. Only two combinations (Lecithin with AA or Quercetin) are currently available on 


A lot of research is currently ongoing to explore Liposomal packaged delivery of nutrients and drugs. More effective therapeutic nutrition functionality will be the inevitable result.  One might expect new over the counter formulations for salad dressing that have outstanding therapeutic nutritional benefits to all at very low cost. For example: olive leaf extract with a coconut/palm/lecithin Liposomal envelope.  See our list of Antiviral foods for possible payloads. One might also expect the drug lobby to convince the FDA to make these combinations unavailable, by decree to preserve their monopoly on current drugs that would be made unnecessary by the new Liposomal products.

Historical Archive AA Papers

See: Historical VitaminC Ascorbate Articles 1930s to  1990s and Irwin Stone: The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease, 1972  The entire book is here.  A body of partly flawed statistical studies seems to invalidate the functional science reported earlier by the leading scientists of earlier generations.  The challenge is to examine the divergences, to find the causes of the experiments’ miss-designs, and to repair the wrong conclusions. We need to correct the mistakes, to fix our medical doctrine and to re-educate our practitioners so they can be as successful as the leading successful practitioners of the past.  Teach them to do less harm, by recognizing subclinical scurvy in all its forms as described by the ancient wise ones in the archive.


Determining AA Levels:

Variability in physiology from person to person and from time to time.

If oral AA intake is in the GI tract, too much can make your gut loose. “Too much” is highly variable over a range of more than 200 to one, depending on medical (disease) condition.  AA in too high levels causes a gut purge, changing the gut environment. Natural gut purging during an illness is not a bad thing if you are prepared to reboot the gut with probiotics. 

Take less AA and things go back to normal.  The intake level at which the loose bowel condition occurs depends on AA utilization and on the ROS oxide chemical stress levels inside the body. The RDA recommended daily allowance is a single number based on long-term low AA input and non-depleted AA storage in the body, that is only for healthy persons with negligible ROS and stresses.

The high range of pathological, condition-driven AA-needs (scurvy) calls for much more AA than can be stored.  A hypothetical 100 kg (220 pound) stressed rat would make 17-20 grams of AA from glucose in its liver, continuously, over the day as it is consumed neutralizing toxins and stress in the rat. Sometimes sick rats need even more. 

So it is reasonable for people to take AA continuously at this level, possibly higher.  Normal diet does not even come close to supply this much AA.  Hyperglycemic (diabetic) conditions block and reduce AA cellular uptake and absorption, requiring additional  >3 to >6 grams of AA daily to reach dietary minimal effectiveness.  AA and CoQ10 work together to protect intracellular mitochondrial DNA from damage. See Ely.

After about a half hour after intake, AA is working and within 1 hour the intake is fully in your blood.  Antioxidant AA concentration in the blood is highly variable.  AA is absorbed by store-house organs, the adrenal glands and the eyes, where vision changes may be quickly evident.  The first time I started a high dose (3grams) of AA,  ½ hour later my eyes had snapped into focus. The lenses of our eyes are AA storehouses. You may be able to use the changes in focus as an indicator of AA changes, to remind you that you need to eat some more AA. 


AA + Oxides react disabling AA, making DHA, an oxidizing molecule.

Reactive oxide species (ROS and NOS) molecules metabolize AA. When they come in contact with AA molecules, they convert the AA to the dehydroascorbic (DHA) form, which is a mild oxidant.  The spent, metabolized DHA may be absorbed by infected cells and by microbes where it is lethal.

Excess DHA is also excreted in the urine. Tests for antioxidant AA in the urine do not react to the DHA.  Coincident with large AA intake, a failure to find active AA(reducing) in the urine is an indicator of its consumption fighting infection toxins and oxides.

Cancer cells in tumors have a huge uptake appetite for DHA, converted from AA. DHA then kills the cells in the tumor, acting on the cancer cells mitochondria.  AA in normal cells, in the absence of inflammation, is non reactive and it does not endanger cells, but has a protective action against toxin and allergens.  AA(reducing)’s cellular uptake is much lower than DHA(oxidizing).

When the blood has excess AA and the storage threshold has not been achieved, it is quickly stored for later use. Accounting in part for the short blood half-lifetime as it is absorbed into the storehouses. When the body has a shortage, or an organ under attack (or a tumor) has a shortage, the AA moves from the storehouses to the blood and to the place of need where it is oxidized and metabolized.  The DHA form is sucked into infected/cancer cells and helps them to die. The die off causes toxins to be produced. More AA is needed to neutralize the toxins. Excess DHA form passes back to the lymph and blood and is later excreted through the kidneys.


Healthy vs Infected: AA needs vary widely

When we are very healthy and contain few or no microbial parasites and chronic infections, we might get by with about 100 milligrams per day. Building up quite a stored reserve.  When the reserve goes critically low, blood levels drop and we start to feel uncomfortable.  When we are borderline depleted and when we encounter an allergen, we have an allergic attack.  If we have asthma or hay fever, we are chronically low in AA. When we have high AA reserves, we do not have any hay fever. Asthma attacks are less frequent.

When AA levels are low (scurvy), cortisone levels increase, suppressing the immune system. This reduces the ROS oxide production.  This makes it easier for invading microbes and chronic microbes to replicate. We get sicker, producing more reactive oxides, which further deplete the active AA that is left.  Histamine levels rise to have a protective effect for some cells.  When AA levels pass a too-low threshold level, ROS and histamine levels rise exponentially.  Taking antihistamines stops the histamine but not the oxides. You need more AA for the oxides.

 If we were sick with a hemorrhagic fever like Marburg we might need 250 grams of AA per day and that amount might not be enough. 

When you have cancer you need a lot more AA to feed the tumors and if it is not supplied frequently and enough, you die of scurvy. AA taken frequently for end stage cancer will ease the misery related to the scurvy state created by the cancer stealing the AA from the rest of the body.

At still higher IV levels, 100-200 grams/day, AA in the form of sodium ascorbate kills the cancer cells. IV administration and AA injections can get the blood AA levels much >10x higher that that of oral administration.  Past failed AA tests used oral administration; successful tests used IV administration. The needed blood levels could not be obtained by oral administration. Both ways used together worked best.

When you are acutely sick, you burn AA rapidly, and any stored AA is sucked out of the storehouse organs. You feel this as a feeling of sickness until it is replaced.  If your brain, eyes, and body have a dull ache, this is the sign of depleted AA.  When I get the flu, I take six+ grams of AA every 2 hours and the discomfort eases or almost vanishes. I used to have low AA levels and hay fever during pollen season.  With high AA levels, I have never again had seasonal hay fever, for 45 years.


Pub Med article AA half lifetime is ½ hour.

The Pub-Med abstract that says that AA’s blood-concentration half-lifetime is ½ hour although correct for the conditions measured, is only true for a small domain of conditions.  In the dynamic-AA-needs world of pathologic-condition-nutrition any precise dosage is likely to be far too low.  The pharmacodynamics of AA in vivo is highly dynamic and highly circumstantial as immune system generated toxins continue to cascade. 

If the ~100 gram RDA were to be an equilibrium input for healthy persons, with a high balance of stored AA in their system, the half-life of ½ hour would be related to intake  and excretion alone. Actually a low blood-level of AA is supplemented from stored reserves which are replaced by inputs eaten infrequently.

Some info-sources now recommend a healthy person RDA of about 3 grams.  Older folks with many microbial parasites (chronic infections with inflammation) need 6 to 12 grams or more per day.  Some toxins need high AA intake to fully neutralize ROS produced by the toxin-induced die off and to neutralize the toxin itself.

Active AA in the blood is diminished by transit to storage, by metabolism in attacking oxides, and by excretion.  Klenner himself tested active AA excretion in the urine with Benedicts reducing glucose test, while he was applying high AA dosages for very sick persons. He used frequent urine tests as a dynamic indicator of how much AA to use.  He found that during the illness, while he was putting large amounts of AA into the patient, that none showed in the urine.  After resolution of the illness, reducing AA started showing in the urine, and he knew that the recovery was almost complete.


Presumed AA blood depletion levels based on half-lifetime

It is illuminating to compute how long AA can stay in the blood at effective levels.  Pretend that the ½ hour half-lifetime is correct.  A two-hour delay after AA administration implies a depletion to 1/16 the initial level.  An eight-hour delay in re-intake means the AA blood level depletes to near zero.  In the presence of a systemic acute disease condition, the AA is much more rapidly oxidized than given in the numbers below.  This shows why frequently repeated (never-a-missed-dose) oral AA supplementation is needed. If no added intake,

Hrs/Depleted-to-Level% = .5h/50%; 1h/25%; 1.5h/13%; 2h/6%; 4h/.4%; 6h/.02%; 8h/.00% = 2.5*2-15%.

This means that once a day AA intake in AA depleted (scurvy) state the level next day is 1/248. This also means that if you are sick and are attempting to follow Klenner and Cathcart’s practice, you must use valid pharmacokinetics and have to have oral intake as often as every 2 hours as they recommended. 

Other studies indicate that, if not in the scurvy state, oral input dosages larger than 3 grams do not raise blood levels much more. However, other studies found that the oral inputs may still raise tissue AA with inputs greater than 3 grams at a time.  In the scurvy state, oral inputs move rapidly from blood to replenish depleted tissue AA levels, accounting for the failure of blood levels to rise above the observed limits.  So higher AA oral dosages are still recommended if you are feeling sick.


Think of AA as a food and eat some with every meal. 


Why Many Ascorbic Acid Experiments are Flawed.

Many of the historic diet AA testing experiments are worthless, because they failed to use therapeutic amounts, method, or frequency of AA administration. Most experimenters were testing the depleted (empty bucket) AA state and thus their “AA is useless” findings are falsified by their faulty methodology. Eat  250 milligrams and measure blood 6 hours later, you have [½]12  as a depletion factor; this is ~1/4000 th the dosage and a 15% gut to blood transfer rate multiplier to boot.  Not enough AA molecules to have any effect against a venom or toxin with oral administration of water soluble AA.

Klenner, Cathcart, Pauling, Kalokerinos confirmed each other, using appropriate pharmacokinetic intake levels and frequencies.  Others throughout the world have confirmed these scientists, if they follow their methods and/or exceed their dosages and frequencies.

If you do meta-studies of a bunch of now-falsified “AA-failed” studies, you will have produced incorrect consensus-supporting conclusions.  Thus the mistakes have propagated for a period of about 65 years.  Bad science was in a falsified-concept feedback loop.  “Absence of evidence” is not “Evidence of absence”.  We can’t be all wrong. But most of the consensus was wrong and the consensus was ignoring published successes.   See the reasons. 

The AA ignoring continues. Some savvy nutritionists worry that an effective nutritional AA modality might be suppressed based on regulator prejudice, ignorance or the drug companies’ lobbying to limit effective and low cost competition.


Glucose – AA antagonism:

John Ely has a paper discussing neglected Unprofitable Modalities of medicine that are underutilized, greatly to our detriment.  See: On the Science of Essential Nutrients By John T.A. Ely. These treatments are so inexpensive that no profit exists in providing them.

He defines the change in our diet around 1910 when more sugar and refined starches came into vogue.  Current “normal” glycemic levels are high compared with the levels of 1910.  Hyper glycemic high glucose levels block the action of AA, making it necessary for intake to be higher than 10 grams per day. 

The way to successful treatment is to apply Aggressive Glucose Control (AGC) by reducing carbohydrates to the levels of benign ketosis. This is Dr. Atkins’ induction stage diet.  See Ketonic AA Protocol.  Numerous animal life experiments show significant extensions by underfeeding them.

The benefit of AGC is to enhance the effect of AA as an antibiotic/antiviral and to help DHA uptake into infected and cancer cells, where the oxidized AA (DHA) acts to kill the cell invading dysfunctional mitochondria, and to enhance the immune cell functionality to attack invading microbes. With AGC, the AA below the 10 grams per day intake level, the AA has its normal protective, anti toxin and immune stimulation benefits.

Vitamin C and Oxygen Transport 

AA and CoQ10 increase oxygen transport. 


Persistent chronic infections create persistent inflammation conditions. This hyper inflammation accelerates the AA depletion and creates a high level AA intake dependency.  Normal RDA vitamin C in diet is inadequate.  AA depletion accelerates if large and frequent new AA is not eaten. See case history.


In COPD treatment, insuring high blood oxygen levels is very important. For about $25, a finger O2 percentage measuring instrument can be ordered from China on Ebay. You can then see your O2 levels and pulse rates at any time. We have found that by increasing AA intake to 2 grams every 2 hours for a 130 pound 90 year old COPD sufferer, and by taking 100 mg of CoQ10 each day, that energy and heart function improved from 86% to 94-97% O2 within one week after a heart attack.


Another rule for taking vitamin C is if there is a shortness of breath, a cold, a coughing fit, throat irritation or itch, any muscle or arthritic pain increase, inflammation redness, welt, rash or hives, allergy attack, insect bite itching, sunburn, COPD exacerbation getting worse, feeling of sickness, you have run out of  antioxidant AA and need to eat more, at least several grams more, the amount depending on the seriousness of the discomfort.


AA tunes up the red blood cells.  It works to kill the infected RBCs (See Table A, Malaria) It detoxifies the HEME from carbon monoxide poisoning and smoke inhalation.  It helps in the absorption of nutritive iron and in building new RBCs to replace the defective ones.

Allergic to Vitamin C or something Else?

Some persons take AA in one small dose and think they are allergic to it. It induces a die off of microbes with toxins generated. This means more AA is needed. But if only one RDA sized dose of AA per day is taken, this is not enough. AA depletes rapidly. 


They do not take more AA but less, and feel that they are allergic to the AA.  This allergic flare may be because the AA reserves are depleted by a Herx reaction to the small dose of AA.  Or possibly citric acid is in the formulation and this is the allergen, not vitamin C.  The real situation is they are allergic to a shortage of AA.


Take antihistamines and frequently repeated doses of grams of vitamin C to see if this helps. 


It may help to back off the AA and then restart a few days later, repeatedly every several days, like an allergist will do when training you to get over a specific allergy with the shots.

How do we “catch” a cold? 

Cold-stress depletes ascorbate (AA); Low AA in blood re-activates dormant microbes; active microbes trigger allergenic immune defenses, exacerbate respiratory inflammation, and elevate histamine.  The cold resembles an exacerbation of COPD, where a complex of viral and bacterial chronic infections lay dormant, and then the immune system fires up and microbes start replicating. 


Cold/ COPD Solutions: Suppress immune system, Block signaling: microbes to immune-cells; Angiotensin Release Blockers ARBs like Benicar; Therapeutic (repeated 1-3 hours of 3 grams) amounts of ascorbate (AA= vitamin C);  CoQ10 > 50 mg to improve heart function and increase O2 supply; Zinc supplementation; Antibiotics vs. viruses (RSV) and bacteria (Strep & Mycoplasmas).

AA Vs. Cancer Update: Web Findings & Notes   

L-AA provides a new therapeutic range AA dosage potentiating chemotherapy against degenerative diseases where microbes infect cells and against cancers of many types that have mitochondrial dysfunctions. 


DHA is transported into the cancer cells via the sugar import mechanism. In cancer and microbe infected cells DHA oxidizes mitochondria and kills the cell.  In normal cells the DHA is converted back to AA and is stored, so it can protect the cell. 


Therapeutic range continuous AA blood levels need to be maintained as high as the lethal concentrations found for in vitro killing of cancer cell lines.  These levels are of the order of 1,000 times the RDA  (~100 grams per day, for many days) for vitamin C if IV sodium ascorbate is used.  If Liposomal AA is used, 10 times less L-AA can be administered orally along with oral AA in frequent multi gram doses. 


This treatment is successful both with and without chemotherapy.  If used with chemotherapy, smaller amounts of AA will ease the patient’s discomfort while at the same time put additional oxidative stress on the cancer cells mitochondria.


Vitamin C enters mitochondria via facilitative glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and confers mitochondrial protection against oxidative injury.   Abstract

“Reactive oxygen species  (ROS)-induced mitochondrial abnormalities may have important consequences in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases and cancer.  Vitamin C is an important antioxidant known to quench ROS, but its mitochondrial transport and functions are poorly understood. We found  that the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), enters  mitochondria via facilitative glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and  accumulates mitochondrially as ascorbic acid (mtAA). The  stereo-selective mitochondrial uptake of D-glucose, with its ability to  inhibit mitochondrial DHA uptake, indicated the presence of  mitochondrial Glut. Computational analysis of N-termini of human Glut  isoforms indicated that Glut1 had the highest probability of  mitochondrial localization, which was experimentally verified via  mitochondrial expression of Glut1-EGFP.  In vitro mitochondrial import of  Glut1, immunoblot analysis of mitochondrial proteins, and cellular  immunolocalization studies indicated that Glut1 localizes to  mitochondria. Loading mitochondria with AA quenched mitochondrial ROS  and inhibited oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage. mtAA inhibited  oxidative stress resulting from rotenone-induced disruption of the  mitochondrial respiratory chain and prevented mitochondrial membrane  depolarization in response to a protonophore, CCCP. Our results show  that analogous to the cellular uptake, vitamin C enters mitochondria in  its oxidized form via Glut1 and protects mitochondria from oxidative  injury. Since mitochondria contribute significantly to intracellular  ROS, protection of the mitochondrial genome and membrane may have  pharmacological implications against a variety of ROS-mediated  disorders.”


See our additional Web notes on AA vs Cancer.

Successful AA anti-Cancer clinical results: 

The site,, has material documenting successful high dosage AA IV treatments.  See: Intravenous Ascorbate as a Chemotherapeutic and Biologic Response Modifying Agent  by The Center for the Improvement of Human Functioning, International, Inc., Bio-Communications Research Institute.

Successful application of AA IV to treating various cancer conditions needs to meet the criteria below.

Criteria: A valid treatment-trial should include providing tested (not assumed) blood AA levels that are high enough concentrations to exceed the killing concentrations for cancer cells in vitro.  Papers exist with in vitro cancer-cell-killing AA concentrations published for various cancer cell lines.  The duration of the AA blood levels at a killing-concentration must include several hours each day of maintenance at more than the effective concentration. They should also include oral AA intake at high levels at <3-hour intervals to avoid AA depletion between IV sessions. Between IVs injected AA may be substituted for oral intake.  [Here AA stands for buffered AA, with proper attention to IV minerals balance in blood serum]



Comment: Dr. Levy says Liposomal AA is 7-10 times more effective per gram of AA than a gram of IV

AA in sodium ascorbate administered.  Thus 2 grams of L-AA may be as effective as 10 grams of IV AA in fighting a virus because the lipid coating of L-AA provides a better penetration of the lipid coating of the virus. 


However, when neutralizing toxins, the number of molecules of AA is important vs. the number of molecules of all the toxins and cascade oxides, etc.  In this case IV sodium ascorbate and L-AA would be approximately equal in their effectiveness.  Additional use of oral AA and IV AA together will get more molecules into the blood fastest. Speed is important. L-AA is used for follow up therapy, after the toxins and venoms have been neutralized using IV sodium ascorbate to get the most AA into the blood as fast as possible.


Our ongoing AA web research: AA vs. Cancer   

In Cellular Health Series: Cancer  by Matthias Rath, MD,  has an illustrated color insert:

The Victory Over Cancer is at Hand.

Microbes invade the host’s leukocytes (macrophages) and/or other (liver, tissue, etc. cells), take over intracellular gene-driven enzyme production, and produce an imbalanced chemical dysfunction. Rath, in the insert, describes how a nutrient cocktail stops the destruction of tissue by viral-infected cancer cells. The cocktail ingredients are a combination of L-lysine, L-proline, Vitamin C and Epigallocatechin Gallatin (EGCG, a green tea extract).  AA disables the spreading-factor enzyme, hyaluronidase produced by viruses, cancer cells and bacteria. Hyaluronic acid is a long chain sugar molecule that is one thread in the three-dimensional woven-matrix that makes up the structure of our tissues.  If you combine hyaluronidase and a few select protein-eating enzymes you can dissolve the tissue that is generated to wall off tumors.  Cancer cells generate all of these enzymes to facilitate metastasis.  The Lysine and Proline act as targets for these protein-eating enzymes, blocking their action on tissues. Hyaluronidase (HD) enzyme is made by microbe parasites. It digests the hyaluronic acid lubricant packing the joints that protects cartilage. 


AA plus L-lysine is known to facilitate healing of Herpes-caused lesions.  AA disables the HD in your system, slowing or stopping germ spreading and protecting the HA packing the joints.  It also plays a role in rebuilding tissues and joint cartilage.  AA also speeds wound and surgery healing, and facilitates stem cell differentiation into target cell forms in healing joints and tissues. AA is a universal and quick-acting anti-toxin with an incredibly wide-range of toxin neutralization applications documented by Klenner. See Table A  for a list of toxins. Also see:  Early Clinical Usage of Vitamin C  by Dr Frederick Klenner. 


It is surprising that emergency room doctors inject adrenaline to stimulate AA release from our glandular storehouses instead of using several gram amounts of AA instead.  Many physicians are taught that adrenaline works but are not taught that much of the benefits are from induced AA release and that more AA injected directly will work better and in a unlimited dosage needed for more serious crises.


Likewise for anaphylaxis, serious poisonings, snake and spider venoms, smoke inhalation, and carbon monoxide blood poisoning, and the like, a rapid IV push of grams of sodium ascorbate is essential; Klenner used 10 to 20 grams at a time to reverse anaphylaxis, with remarkable and speedy success.


Pharmacological effects of AA:

All humans lack the essential gene to make AA, so we all must eat AA several times each day in sufficient levels appropriate to our daily needs. First, AA is an antioxidant and it disables the reactive oxidizing species (ROS) and all toxins that it encounters. Next it has a huge number of additional biochemical actions. Including healing in heart disease.


Suggested amounts and rates of Vitamin C intake:

Depends on body weight and conditions. 

Use ratios: 

Your Suggested Daily Intake (Grams) = [Your weight (Kg)] x [17 (grams)/200 (kg)] if you are well.


If you are almost Well:  6 to 17 grams for a 200 lb = 100kg person.

According to Vojdani and Franco, Six grams of AA per day, at a minimum, will begin to restart the immune system’s T-cells’, B- cells’, and Macrophages’ recovery from the mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) that is a result of various microbes invading these immune system cells. These are white blood cells.  6 grams/day = 4x500 mg tablets (= 2 grams) every six waking hours, 3 times/day.  For higher levels you may wish to build up slowly to bowel tolerance; or take smaller doses more frequently. If diarrhea occurs, decrease by 1 gram, use more frequent doses and work up to higher levels. This a loose gut indicates  your individual tolerance. Spread the dose over the day for maximum intake and benefits.

A typical daily multi-vitamin contains only 50-100 mg of vitamin C. This is 1/20th to 1/10th gram, just enough to prevent scurvy if you are healthy, but not nearly enough to neutralize serious oxidative stress or to prevent infections and other illnesses. The best form of vitamin C is the one most readily absorbed.  Timed-release forms of AA are useless.

Powdered AA in gelatin capsules is better than pressed solid pills.  Buffered powder (e.g., Ester C is calcium ascorbate) is available under various house brands, although sodium ascorbate is preferred.  All of these are available online and frequently quantity discounts are available.


If you are Acutely Ill or have Toxins, Toxemia, Carbon Monoxide or Venom Poisoning: IV and/or Liposomal form.

·    Up to 100 grams per day. Divide the daily dose and administer 6 to 16 times per day. (1-3 hours between oral doses)

·    If seriously ill or in shock front-load with higher IV or injected sodium ascorbate amounts at the start. 

·    Use AA injections, IV drip and AA by oral intake together in appropriate coordinated doses.

·    Inject Intra-Muscular and/or inject Intra-Venous solution (for shock, lethargy and for unconsciousness)


Chronic: Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme disease, Taking Statins, etc

Depends on the condition, see Dr. Cathcart’s table below:  Also supplement with CoQ10 to help mitochondria energy.

Ascorbate Dosage levels

Acute Illness: Oral dosage to ramp up without limit until bowel tolerance level is determined.  Start at dosages depending of severity of illness, per Dr. Cathcart’s table.

Severe colds may need 30 to 100 grams/day. If your gut does not go loose, you are below the maximum that you need.  If you take AA by injection it does not affect the gut.

 Powder form ascorbic acid in water, 2 tablespoons Vitamin C powder/hour for two days to several weeks, then decrease gradually. Quitting abruptly might result in “induced-scurvy” feel-bad condition. So taper down.

Always carry AA on trips, and if headache or allergic attack or sinus headache, your system is out of AA and you need to resume prior high AA intake levels.

Vitamin C potentiates antibiotics, it reduces allergic reaction to their use, and in high and frequent dosages it stops bacteria spread. It works to moderate the oxides and toxins produced when the microbes die from the antibiotic actions.


Chronic Illness: Polymicrobial infections may need 6, 12, 18, 24, or 32 grams per day of Vitamin C, with dosages evenly spaced (every 1, 2, 3 or 4 hrs). Timed-release tablets are worse than spaced dosage; it releases more AA in the lower intestine, past the region of maximum absorption. Duration of use of Ascorbate for serious chronic intracellular infection and cancer may be til end of life. Transport percentage from gut to blood depends on the dosage and the degree of need (scurvy state). Higher water soluble AA dosages may not all be absorbed. Therefore smaller dosages taken more frequently will be better absorbed than large dosages taken less frequently.  Liposomal AA is absorbed 5 times better and has no loose gut effect, thus the maximum dose can be several grams per hour. The limiting factor may be the effects of too much lecithin, oily skin.


Table 1 Dr. Cathcart’s Table of Vitamin C Dosage

Dose Interval = 24 Hours/ # of Doses.

Source: Dr. Cathcart’s research at





Time Between Doses (16-18 hour

Waking-day) *


4 – 15

4 – 6

4 - 3 hrs

Environ/food allergy

0.5 – 50

4 – 8

4 - 2 hrs

Anxiety, mild stress

15 – 25

4 – 6

4 - 3 hrs

Mild cold

30 – 60

6 – 10

3 - 1.5 hrs

Severe cold

60 – 100+

8 – 15

2 - 1 hrs


100 – 150

8 – 20

2 - .8 hrs

Coxsackie virus

100 – 150

8 – 20

2 - .8 hrs

Mononucleosis EBV

150 – 200+

12 – 25

1.5 - .7 hrs

Viral pneumonia

100 – 200+

12 – 25

1.5 - .7 hrs

Hay fever, asthma

15 – 50

4 – 8

4 - 2 hrs


25 – 150+

6 – 20

3 - .75 hrs


15 – 100

4 – 15

4 - 1.2 hrs

Ankylosing spondylitis

15 – 100

4 – 15

4 - 1.2 hrs

Reiter's syndrome

15 – 60

4 – 10

4 - 1.2 hrs

Acute anterior uveitis

30 – 100

4 – 15

4 - 1.2 hrs

Rheumatoid arthritis

15 – 100

4 – 15

4 - 1.2 hrs

Bacterial infections

30 – 200+

10 – 25

1.6 - .7 hrs

Infectious hepatitis

30 – 100

6 – 15

3 - 1.2 hrs

Candidiasis Yeast

15 – 200+

6 – 25

3 -.7 hrs

Highest levels require IV administration.  This is a guide. You should seek Professional Medical Support to administer high levels of AA by injection or IV.  Check the web for  doctors in your community.  Look for orthomolecular and nutrition oriented doctors and clinics.

*To minimize overnight AA depletion, take oral AA at bedtime and first-thing when awakening.

Also take a dose if awake  middle of night to urinate.


Ketosis Case History (HK) 

See our discussion of an AA Ketonic Protocol

Ketosis plus vitamin C  (AA) is an adjuvant to the Tetracycline-antibiotic protocol. Combine Klenner's AA and Rheumatoid Arthritis: The infection Connection, Appendix 2 antibiotic protocol. Benign ketosis is induced by drastic reduction of carbohydrate intake. [Atkins-diet induction stage, < 10 grams carbohydrates/day] The liver shifts from fat storage mode to fat extraction mode and fats and proteins are catabolized to acetyl CoA to feed the Krebs cycle where ATP is made to feed energy to all the body cells. Body-cell sugar use shuts down. Hypoglycemic condition stops in ketosis mode. Microbes and viruses are sugar dependent, so are drastically starved. ROS of the sickness oxidizes the AA to the DHA form. Microbes, microbe-infected body and cancer cells need sugar and ingest oxidized Dehydro Ascorbic Acid (DHA) instead.  Inside the microbes and the infected cells the DHA oxidizes the cells' mitochondria and induces apoptosis (cell death). AA levels of about 28 grams per day were used in one case history on our website in addition to the Appendix 2 tetracycline protocol to reverse (cure) a severe painful bone-joint resident infection of unknown origin in a period of 4 days. Eating honey-covered peanuts was enough to re-trigger the pain locus. The protocol was repeated successfully several times when relapse was induced by the sugar. The periods of remission extended and severity of relapse decreased with each repetition of the ketosis and the combined protocols.


AA Studies summarized at NIH 

The problematic official “scurvy does not exist” and “low levels are enough” nutritional doctrine. Doctrine was established by measuring an empty bucket.  Blood level variability changes ‘presence’ to ‘absence’ within a few hours.  Many conflicting studies were made at too-low or depleted levels, they assumed AA was present. But it was not and when no effect was measured with AA absent, they  failed to measure blood AA levels, just assumed  “AA was present” when it was not. Then they labeled AA as ineffective when it was AA depletion, not AA presence that was measured.  Some AA supplement studies conflict in results, indicating that AA plus other nutrients together may be needed.  Some AA statistical studies conflict with our knowledge of functional biochemistry findings. 


Since high blood sugar, hyperglycemia and diabetes, so strongly interfere with AA uptake and effectiveness, there are problems of under appreciated, much higher needs and of dependencies due to chronic and acute illnesses, toxic/anaphylactic shock syndrome, persistent hyper-allergic states, or persons suffering from poisons or insect/snake/fish/plant toxins.  The discussion of AA blood levels for anticancer treatments recognize that at high levels, AA can act as a powerful anti cancer drug.


 See Ely, Klenner and Cathcart below.

Avg 2X RDA intake leads to 9-13% critical and 18-24% marginal AA blood LEVELS:

“The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C is 60 mg/day, an amount associated with plasma vitamin C concentrations ranging from 28 to 34 μmol/L. Plasma vitamin C concentrations ranging from 11 μmol/L to less than 28 μmol/L represent marginal vitamin C status, which Jacob defines as a moderate risk of developing vitamin C deficiency due to low tissue stores. Plasma vitamin C concentrations less than 11 μmol/L are indicative of vitamin C deficiency. The average daily intake of vitamin C in men in the United States is about twice the RDA, yet the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency and marginal vitamin C status in men is 13% and 24% respectively. Women consume an average of 90 mg vitamin C daily, and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency and marginal vitamin C status in women is 9% and 18%, respectively. These data indicate that although the average vitamin C intake in adult men and women is adequate, vitamin C deficiency and marginal vitamin C status are strikingly prevalent in these populations.”  -- Roman Bystrianyk


Persons who have marginal vitamin C levels in blood are suffering from either inadequate AA input or chronic infections that produce a toxin load and production of oxides by the immune system, or both.  These are the persons likely to have a depressed immune system and are at risk of an adverse event after vaccination. They are vulnerable to allergens, hay fever attacks, and are more likely to become a cold/flu epidemic victim.


Rapid Onset Scurvy induced by Reactive Oxide Stress, as indicated in the conditions above almost instantly converts AA into the inactive oxidized form and in cases where there is little or no AA stored in tissues, this can result in grave complications to infections such as pneumonia, toxic shock, vaccine shock, and systemic infections.

2004 Petition: ReEvaluate Vitamin C RDA based on scientific findings.

Copyright 2004 Bill Sardi, Knowledge of Health, Inc.  THE VITAMIN C CALAMITY

 [2012, Seven years later, Still no corrections to flawed publications and stonewalling by the FDA/NIH researchers still continues:

“Had they exhibited any integrity, NIH researchers should have written medical journals and retracted their previously errant studies. They didn’t. They should have alerted the Food and Nutrition Board that the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin C needs to be re-evaluated. They didn’t. They should have alerted the news media. They didn’t. They should have withdrawn now erroneous printed publications and website pages that continue to air the misinformation. They didn’t.


“Even after being prodded for over a year by fellow scientists, Drs. Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts from Manchester, England, the NIH researchers took no corrective action.


“Hickey and Roberts reacted by writing a book on vitamin C (Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C, available as an e-book at $6.00 US funds) that documents the scientific mistakes made by NIH researchers….”


The 2004 petition from noted scientists to NIH remains a milestone marking the start of a new period of official failure to respond, similar to that noted by Linus Pauling in 1977. 



Vitamin C RDA is too low: flawed science and uncorrected mistakes.

Health Supreme by Sepp Hasslberger  [2004]

Researchers: [Hickey and Roberts] Vitamin C Deficiency Widespread - Link to Heart Disease, Infections, Cancer


The main flaw -- the half life for vitamin C is quite short, about 30 minutes in blood plasma, a fact which NIH and IM researchers have failed to recognize. (Half life is the time it takes for half of a substance to be removed from the body.)


NIH researchers established the current RDA based upon tests conducted 12 hours (24 half lives) after consumption. "To be blunt," says Hickey, "the NIH gave a dose of vitamin C, waited until it had been excreted, and then measured blood levels.


 Because vitamin C is used up rapidly, a very high single dose of vitamin C would not achieve the same concentration in the blood serum over time as two divided lower doses. Hickey and Roberts claim many negative studies using high-dose vitamin C have failed to recognize this fact and have therefore mistakenly concluded that high-dose supplemental vitamin C is ineffective.



[Too low amount to be therapeutic and blood level depletes to .000001 in 10 hours; gut to blood transfer factor is <.15]

In the past year Hickey and Roberts have shaken the confidence of the IM and NIH, revealing that the medical establishment has failed to investigate the use of high-dose vitamin C properly, for more than 50 years. Hickey and Roberts have taken the IM and NIH to task for developing the RDA for vitamin C on studies using only 15 healthy test subjects. Normal variations would call for a greater pool of test subjects before establishment of an RDA for hundreds of millions of people. [Functional reactivity and rapid oxidation of ascorbate not accounted for in long term low dose statistical studies]


Furthermore, the RDA is intended to set a level of nutrient consumption that would prevent disease (scurvy) among the vast majority (95%+) of the population.

Special groups have increased need for vitamin C and comprise more than 35 percent of the population. The current RDA wouldn't meet the needs of these large subpopulations:

Smokers (50 million),

Estrogen or birth control pill users (13 million and 18 million),

Diabetics (16 million), pregnant females (4 million) and

People taking aspirin (inestimable millions) or other drugs,.


[Arthritis and rheumatic patients not counted but in tens of millions]

Flu and Cold victims not counted but in millions

Asthmatics and Chronically ill

Studies of AA blood levels of hospital admitted patients show significant percentage 10-35% of presumably healthy population has AA levels critically low]-KFP



Hickey and Roberts confronted the IM and NIH with their own contradictory data.

The IM and NIH claim the saturation point is reached at a certain concentration of ascorbic acid in blood plasma but later published a paper showing repeated oral doses could achieve much higher concentrations, more than three times greater!

[Annals Internal Medicine 140: 533-37, 2004]


Because of the short half-life of ascorbic acid, five 100 milligram doses of oral vitamin C taken at intervals through the day will raise average blood levels more than a single 1000 milligram dose. Hickey says the blood plasma is not saturated when 1000 milligrams of vitamin C is consumed orally since NIH researchers themselves demonstrated 2500 mg dose produces even higher concentrations.


[Orthomolecular doctors recommend daily 50-200 mg per Kg body weight depending on age (older è more) and on health conditions (sick è more).  That is, the amount a stressed rat would make per kilogram (>15gm/100Kg), based on animal studies.  When daily input of this amount is spread over 16 waking hours, the system is saturated, and normal toxins and allergies do not result in significant inflammation or other toxemia effects, they are promptly neutralized.  Of course a venomous snakebite would require more AA in proportion to the amount of venom injected, and the lethality of the venom]-KFP


Hickey and Roberts claim the minimum supplemental dose of oral vitamin C needed to sustain blood plasma levels is around 2500 milligrams a day in divided doses in healthy individuals.


[Since sugar blocks AA transport, between meals and without food is better.  AA in orange juice would have less effect than AA by itself with water. Still the gut to blood transfer factor is <.15 except in the scurvy state.  Transfer is in intestine and lower intestine.]-KFP


Millions of others (smokers, diabetics, etc.) have needs greater than this RDA. NIH researchers doggedly cling to their claim that no more than 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C is required for human health [per day] and that a diet which includes five servings of fruits and vegetables would provide 210-280 milligrams of vitamin C. [Biofactors 15: 71-74, 2001] But only 9 percent of the US population consumes 5 servings of plant foods daily.


The National Cancer Institute has abandoned their 5-a-day recommendation and replaced it with 9-a-day servings of fruits and vegetables once they recognized five servings a day had not reduced the risk for cancer or heart disease.

[But this amount is still not enough; also ends up promoting too many carbs and calories]-KFP


TOLERABLE UPPER LIMIT ALSO FLAWED:  [Excuses malpractice by medical practitioners]

The recommended Tolerable Upper Limit for vitamin C, 2000 mg per day, gives the false impression that amounts beyond this would be toxic or produce side effects.


[There is no practical upper limit of AA safety, hundreds of grams per day have been used therapeutically for hundreds of thousands of patients without incident. In fact the harm in giving AA is in giving AA in too small amounts and not frequently enough.  Patients who die every day die because of oxidant form AA depletion. So many Doctors are oblivious of scurvy.]-KFP


In fact, 2000 mg of oral vitamin C would not meet the needs of millions of American adults. The only side effect at this dose is transient diarrhea which usually dissipates over time.


[Diarrhea results if the AA is not absorbed in the upper intestine and gets to the lower intestine. According to Cathcart the diarrhea comes on only at much higher levels when more than several grams of AA is taken all at one dose.  Spreading out the dose and taking more than several grams at a time if you are AA depleted will not yield the diarrhea.  The diarrhea also purges the gut of microbes and helps to regularize the gut flora based on an acid loving microbiome. ]-KFP



The mistaken idea that high-dose vitamin C supplementation saturates the blood plasma after a moderate dose of about 150 milligrams of oral vitamin C, and additional amounts are worthless since they are excreted in the urine, now must be abandoned, says Hickey and Roberts.


More than a decade ago other researchers found that consumption of “high-dose” vitamin C (2000 mg per day) increased ascorbic acid levels in the human eye by 22-32 percent compared to when a so-called “saturation dose” (148 mg) is consumed. [Current Eye Research 8: 751, 1991]


Ascorbic acid levels in other tissues in the body, such as the brain where vitamin C concentration is 10 times greater than in blood plasma [J Clinical Investigation 100: 2842, 1997], make it evident that blood plasma levels may not be the gold standard for measuring vitamin C adequacy in all tissues in the human body.”


[Liposomal AA transfers about 95% with the loose gut not happening. L-AA and normal AA used together in repeated dosages every hour can supply a therapeutic level of blood AA for an indefinite period of time. Oral L-AA gram for gram is 7-10 times more effective as IV sodium ascorbate when used against microbes with a lipid envelope. – Dr. Thomas Levy in a blog on the Vitamin C foundation]-KFP


2011:  FDA's scheme to outlaw nearly all nutritional supplements created after 1994 would destroy millions of jobs and devastate economy

And increase medical delivery costs by slowing recovery from pathologies with inflammation.



Table A Curing the Incurable’s Antitoxin, Anti Bacterial, Antiviral actions of IV AA and Liposomal AA. 

In order to achieve therapeutic dosages of AA, oral intake of Liposomal AA or IV direct infusions of sodium ascorbate needs to be administered.  Cathcart, Klenner, Kalokerinos, Riordan, Saul and Levy have documented the methods. See Table 2, Reference 10, below.


Anti Viral:  Intracellular / Outside cells

Antibacterial: Antibiotic & Antitoxin

Anti-Toxin: Neutralizing

Viral hepatitis  Liver’s antitoxin blood-cleaning uses up vitamin C. So Liposomal AA delivers more of the needed AA to just where it is needed, and if enough is taken the viral liver infection will be destroyed too.


Vitamin C Protects against drug reactions: Allergies and toxemias for Tetracyclines, Cypro, Sulfas, Penicillins, Chemotherapy, etc.

Polio -Klenner

Pertussis = Whooping Cough (COPD like)

Bacterial exotoxins: (All)

Measles -Klenner

Tetanus = Lockjaw

Barbiturates and Alcohols

Rapid detoxification

Mumps -Klenner

Tuberculosis, also use Lauric Acid & enzymes like serrapeptase. Liposomal AA is better form.

Carbon Monoxide and smoke inhalation

AA instantly reactivates Hemoglobin.

Viral Encephalitis


Nuclear Radiation: AA protects against damage; increases survival dosage.

Chicken Pox and Shingles

Streptococcal infections

Burns and Sunburn

Herpes: HV 1&2,  CMV, EBV , Caposi’s sarcoma

Rheumatic Fever

Frostbite recovery

Influenza: SARS, all varieties

Scarlet Fever

Endotoxin from gut and Herx release

Rabies:  In high frequent doses



AIDS:  High, Long-Term, With Lauric Acid




Lyme disease: Borreliosis, Helps to control inflammation, very persistent

Tetanus exotoxin

West Nile virus

Chlamydia Pneumonia: Helps, very persistent

Botulinum toxin

Ebola and other Hemorrhagic fevers


Cyanide and cyanosis


Protozoa: Giardia lambda, control antibiotic die-off Herx inflammation.

Histamine:  AA blood levels below critical level stimulate histamine release.

Leukemia (viral)

Listeria monocytogenes: Food treatment

Nitrosamines: Depends on Ph, +/- effects

Gut viruses

Amoebic and Bacillary dysentery

Mushroom & Mycotoxins

Viral Pneumonias: RSV

Salmonella: Food treatment

Mold environmental toxins



Plant toxins poison ivy

Klenner maintained all viruses were vulnerable to high levels of IV sodium ascorbate. Cathcart concurred in this opinion; Doses ranging to above  200 grams per day IV for hemorrhagic fever viruses, like Marburg and Ebola.

Rocky mountain spotted fever

Insect venoms: Bees, wasps, spiders, scorpions, etc. All if enough IV AA fast enough

Cancer Viruses

Staphylococcus infections.

Snake venoms: All, if enough IV AA fast enough

Marine venoms: Box jellyfish; Fugu

Hodgkin’s disease?

Trypanosoma infections

Heavy metals: Chelates, mercury, aluminum adjuvants, lead, silver, copper, magnesium, etc.

Legionella pneumophila

Calcium: Facilitates bone healing (Boneset herb);

Mobilizes calcium

Facilitates stem cell differentiation to target cells

Pesticides: Wide range of protections; DDT adjunct, parathion, malathion, etc See Curing the Incurable



Table 2 Vitamin C References On 

Katherine M Poehlmann, PhD and Karl Poehlmann


1.      Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

2.      AA Ketonic Protocol Factors   Multi-factors for healing

3.      How Vitamin C Works  AA’s Functional nutrition explained  

4.      A 2nd Vitamin  C Overview   Well written 2nd opinion  

5.      Misdiagnosis: Scurvy as SBS  Shaken Baby Syndrome    

6.      Vitamin C Relieves Pain   Our family’s case history

7.      West Nile Cure?  IV and Liposomal AA: (Dr. Tom Levy)

8.      Liposomal Vitamin C  Therapeutic breakthrough formulation

9.      Health References Most-useful health books and articles

10.   Authoritative Nutrition Related to AA and Inflammation  

11.   Vitamin C Historic Papers  At 

12.   Vaccines and Inflammation Cause Autism

13.   Post-Antibiotic Age: Germ Theory Tim O’Shea

14.   Our Nutritional Writings Listed below



Papers on Vitamin C used in OrthoMedical Nutrition.

-- Klenner, Cathcart, Pauling, Stone 

  1. Theodore Jorgensen Physicist Letter  November 2003  Overview
  2. Historical VitaminC Ascorbate Articles 1930s to 1990s SeaNet Archive
  3. Dr Robert Cathcart: Medical Tribune Letter: Clinical Trial of Vitamin C (1975)
  4. Dr. Robert Cathcart: Medical Tribune Letter Vitamin C Function in AIDS (1983)
  5. Dr. Robert Cathcart: Preparing Vitamin C solution for IV/Injection use
  6. Dr. Klenner: Significance of High Daily Intake of Ascorbic Acid in Preventive Medicine
  7. Dr. Klenner on AA vs Polio cases of neural recovery
  8. Dr. Klenner: Observations On the Dose and Administration of Ascorbic Acid When Employed Beyond the Range of A Vitamin in Human Pathology
  9. Dr. Klenner's Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C
  10. Dr. Klenner's Protocol for MS and Myasthenia Gravis

12. Linus Pauling Institute  Vitamin C

  1. AA vs. Viral Diseases List and References Dr Saul’s Summary List
  2. Fonorow: CO-Q10, Statins, Vitamin C  2003  Includes Headlines:
  3. L. Pauling:  Lysine/Ascorbate-Related Amelioration of Angina (Arterial Sclerosis) [JOM 1991] Remarkable Case History  and Functional Medicine Analysis
  4. Linus Pauling: The [In-]Effectiveness of the NCI   1977, After $Bs, Still no AA studies. 2012 Update: the Stall goes on.
  5. Jungeblut Bio
  6. Vitamin C: The Facts, The Fiction, and The Law  Thomas Levy MD, JD. Presentation, New Zealand Law.
  7. Supplemental Ascorbate in the Supportive Treatment of Cancer  Prolongation of Survival Times in Terminal Human Cancer

20.  Irwin Stone: The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease, 1972  The entire book here

  1. Different Forms of Vitamin C, Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center
  2. Sweden Lund Univ: Dehydroascorbic acid clears Alzheimer plaques in mice
  3. Johns Hopkins: Vitamin C & E cut ICU deaths by 50%
  4. Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Disease in Users of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements
  5. Aloe vera gel increases bioavailability ~3x of vitamins C & E  




Dr. Ely’s Dr. Cathcart and Dr. Klenner’s articles:

  1. Klenner: The Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic
  2. Klenner: The Treatment of Poliomyelitis and Other Virus Diseases with Vitamin C
  3. Dr. Klenner’s  1971 Vitamin C paper
  4. UofWashington: Ely: Glycemic Modulation of Tumor Tolerance Sugars feed Cancer and block AA functions
  5. UofWashington: Ely: On the Science of Essential Nutrients 2002  “Unprofitable Modalities”
  6. UofWashington: Ely: Ascorbic Acid and Some Other Modern Analogs of the Germ Theory, 1999
  7. UofWashington: Ely: On Population Kinetics of an Aging Society:  Aging reversed from scurvy symptoms by AA, CoQ10 Nutrition.
  8. UofWashington: Ely: Hyperglycemia Epidemic  B6 and Nutrition
  9. UofWashington: Ely CoQ10 Summary of Ref Abstracts
  10. UofWashington: Ely & Krone: "Brief Update Ubiquinone = CoQ10"
  11. UofWashington: Ely & Krone: "Urgent Update Ubiquinone = CoQ10"  Turnover and daily consumption
  12. UofWashington: Ely Langsjoen "Intro to CoQ10"    
  13. Dr. Cathcart His saved website at
  14. Older Cathcart Web Page  More links to other sites and AA lore.



 Our Infection Connection Writings on Nutrition

  1. Nutrition, Orthomolecular and Complementary Medicine NLM; LPI; JOM; Enig; Links: Pauling, Ely, Klenner, Cathcart, Stone
  2. AA Case Histories Links to web Case Histories of Vitamin C induced recoveries.
  3. Kalokerinos Papers and Related Confirming Info  AA vs. Vaccine-induced scurvy and endotoxaemia chain reactions.
  4. Kalokerinos Quotes  from his book Medical Pioneer of the 20th  Century
  5. Ketonic AA Antibiotic Protocol with Nutrition Factors The math and the multi-factor details.  
  6. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid = AA) IV Protocols for Cancer  IV AA vs. tumor cells details.
  7. PubMed:  Ascorbic Acid: Anti-tumor, Anti-angiogenic, Pharmacokinetics:  Abstracts
  8. Vitamin C PharmacoKinetics and PharmacoDynamics: How AA works. How long it lasts.
  9. How Much Vitamin C?   Well vs. Sick  FreeArticle Summary outlines condition vs. needed amounts
  10. Actions Of Vitamin C Free Article: Summary outline of AA beneficial actions
  11. Statins Interfere with Cholesterol Functions Heme & CoQ10 Production Aging speedup, Fatigue, Muscle pain, Myopathy, Neuropathy, Worsens: Fibromyalgia, MS, MG, and ALS
  12. Heart Disease And Fat Nutrition Now-falsified theories are proven to cause harm.
  13. A Revolution in Our Understanding of Oils and Nutrition A sea change: Saturated fats are anti-microbial; They kill viruses, yeasts, bacteria, protozoa and boost vital hormone production
  14. Kefir and Related Probiotics Fermented milk microbes some helpful, others misunderstood.
  15. COPD, ASD, & Infections: Diet & Countermeasures.
  16. Anti Microbial Foods:  Where to start looking for antiviral medicine in natural foods

Authoritative Nutritional Reference Websites


 NLM; LPI; JOM; Enig; Links: Pauling, Ely, Klenner, Cathcart, Stone



1.     National Library of Medicine: Complementary Medicine Links

2.     Linus Pauling Institute @ Oregon State University Links

3.     Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine: Links

4.     Mary Enig’s Fats/Oils Papers: Google[enig coconut antiviral]

5.     Vitamin C Ortho-Molecular Nutrition:  By Klenner, Cathcart, Pauling, Stone

6.     John Ely, Medical Physicist: On Nutrition and Other Important Papers

7.     Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity:


Back To  Home Page

Back to Our Ongoing Research


Copyright KF and KM Poehlmann, January 2013, all rights reserved.

Our Experience and Qualifications (Katherine Poehlmann, PhD and Karl Poehlmann)

Inflammation, chronic infections, nutrition and immunity are topics we have researched broadly in our studies of worldwide medical knowledge, documented on the Internet and in the historical archives of medicine.  We have spent over ten calendar years reading about these inter-related subjects, attending postgraduate medical conferences. We have read countless medical texts, abstracts, papers, online in the National Library of Medicine and contained at various authoritative medical, nutritional and biological websites. The mass of the available information worldwide is tremendous. Search engines can reach much of it, so it can be correlated productively.



Nothing herein or referenced herein should be considered prescriptive for any medical condition.  This information is for study and education purposes only.  The readers are advised to find and consult well-educated, trained and licensed medical and nutritional practitioners who shall evaluate the many circumstances and conditions of each of their patients and will devise appropriate treatments and nutritional plans for them.  It is recognized that each person has the right and duty to be well informed about the best foods, nutrition and medical practices available that will promote their own good health.  The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and the sources cited and there are many divergences of opinions on many topics. The readers must resolve the conflicts, in their own minds, after careful consideration of all the details and after any further necessary research and study.


Our books are available on  

More intermediate-level information is pointed to below, See Latest Findings and Free Articles.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Infection Connection  (2001, and 2011) and

Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection (2012)

Latest Findings: » West Nile Cure?  » Liposomal Vitamin C       » Systemic Plaque Cures?

» Hantavirus Epidemic ‘12        »  Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics    » AA Ketonic Protocol Factors

» How Vitamin C Works            »  A 2nd Vitamin  C Overview      » Misdiagnosis: Scurvy as SBS 

» COPD Countermeasures         » Vitamin C Relieves Pain            » Video Liposomal Vitamin C

» Vitamin C Foundation Videos »  AA vs. Cancer Update              » $83,000 Scorpion Bite

» Nutrition Analysis: Chocolate » Vaccines+Scurvy = SIDS+SBS  » Statins Cause Harm

» Saturated Fats are Healthful  » Vaccines+Scurvy = Autism+ASD » Fats and Heart Disease

» Adverse Case Histories            »  Fixes for US Medical System     » Burn Stem Cell Treatment

» Nutrition Table of  Contents   »  Fix Obamacare Mistakes           » Prenatal Ultrasound Danger

» Mushroom Poisoning, 2012     » E.coli endotoxins cause SIDS     » Cancer: Reactivated Metazoa?

Tables: » Microbes & Diseases   » Cancer-Linked Microbes           » Pauling's Heart Disease Nutrition

» AA Relieves Coughing Fits      » Anti-Viral Foods, Not Eaten     » Endotoxins and Exotoxins Recovery

» Movie: “Forks Over Knives”   » Flu Vaccines Cause Scurvy?    » Vaccines Vs. Nutrition    

» Prager:VaccinesCauseAutism?




Ongoing Research Articles

Ongoing Research (2002 – Present)  Index

1.             Diagnosis-Checker  Where to get a second opinion on the web.

2.             Dr Thomas McPherson Brown Arthritis Institute Conference May 1991

3.             Dr Garth Nicolson's Website and Papers Many important references.

4.             CCMRF 2005 PolyMicrobial Presentation Slides by KF Poehlmann

5.             Koch's Postulates:  Grounds for systemic denial of reality?

6.             Arguing From Minimized Statistics Leads to Problems and wrong conclusions

7.             Natural Antiviral Foods, Herbs, Oils  Where to look to find medicine in food.

8.             Clinic at WalMart: Low cost medical service and access to basic drugs.

9.             Nutrition, Orthomolecular and Alternative/Complementary Medicine Web links.

10.       Statins Interfere with Cholesterol Functions & CoQ10 Production Age speedup.

11.       Cancer vs. Microbes: Table with references to medical WikiPedia.

12.       Diseases/Conditions Vs. Microbes: Table with references to medical WikiPedia.

13.       Urinary Tract Infections: Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas & drug sensitivity.

14.       Why Doctors Might Not Use the Brown Antibiotic Protocol Many poor reasons.

15.       Ketonic AA Antibiotic Protocol with Nutrition Factors The math and the factors.

16.       Gut Bacteria and Health Countermeasures Reboot the gut with probiotics.

17.       Metallo Enzymes a Complex of Active Molecules Plus and minus roles.

18.       Gut Bacteria Metabolic Syndrome, Heart Disease and Lecithin Surprise!

19.       Vaccines + Mitochondrial Dysfunction Cause ASD & dysfunction of the Vaccine Court.

20.       Vaccines Cause Chronic Hyper Allergy A long-tail statistical certainty.

  Vaccines hyper-sensitize to disease agents Many examples in the literature.

  Vaccines hyper-sensitize to food proteins Antibodies target nerve sheaths.

  Proof: Macrophagic myofasciitis Lesions  Adjuvant at injection site persists.

  Cumulative Aluminum Persistent Toxicity Adjuvant-caused immune hyperactivity.

     Causality is denied as a mystery, focused studies un-funded and unread.

21.       Vaccines Vs. Scurvy Notes  Plus Kalokerinos related URLs.

22.       Heart Disease And Fat Nutrition Falsified theories cause harm.

23.       A Revolution in Our Understanding of Oils and Nutrition A sea change.

24.       Kefir and Related Probiotics Fermented milk microbes some helpful, others misunderstood.

25.       Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid = AA) IV Protocols for Cancer AA vs. tumor cells.

26.       PubMed:  Ascorbic Acid: Anti-tumor, Anti-angiogenic, Pharmacokinetics:

27.       Vitamin C PharmacoKinetics and PharmacoDynamics: How AA works.

28.       COPD, ASD, & Infections: Diet & Countermeasures.

29.       Mycoplasma Photomicrographs  Links to Pictures.

30.       CWD L-Forms History  Who found What. by Amy Proal Link to website.

31.       Lyme Disease Perspective Great overview by Dr Scott Taylor, DVM; & more.

32.       Lyme Disease Borrelia Burgdorferi Information and Pictures.

33.       A Remarkable Success: Reverse dementia by Ketosis diet and Coconut oil.

34.       Jenna’s Lyme Blog Articles

35.       Colorful Lyme Lecture by Alan McDonald, a pathologist. (2007)

36.       Marshall Protocol Inflammation in RA, Fibromyalgia, and Sarcoidosis.  

37.       Chlamydia pneumoniae Linked to Heart Disease, Stroke, and Alzheimer’s.

38.       Candida Yeast Infection  Aggravates Rheumatic Symptoms.

39.       Conditions Helped by Minocycline  List of conditions.

40.       Microbes Vs. Maladies Microbial co-factors of chronic illnesses:

41.       Remarkable Case Histories Infections, Inflammation, Recoveries.

42.       Vitamin C (AA) Relieves Coughing Fits. Whooping Coughs (1937)

43.       Free Health Articles  More Health Articles, Indexed