How  vitamin C  works.  2017 Revisited Update


  1. Vitamin C is essential to life.
  2. AA Functions
  3. Scurvy is two-low a systemic level of (antioxidant-form) ascorbic acid.
  4. Histamine and Scurvy
  5. Vitamin C Blood Levels
  6. The AA/DHA Ratio indicates medical condition.
  7. Rapid Onset Scurvy needs to be recognized in all diseases.
  8. SIDS and SBS are caused by Scurvy.
  9. Emergency First-Aid: Carbon Monoxide, Smoke Inhalation, Venoms, Sunburn and Heat Stroke.
  10. Needed AA amounts can vary rapidly and widely.
  11. How AA and DHA work to kill microbe infected cells.
  12. AA intake amounts and frequencies.
  13. Oxide-Histamine Chain Reaction
  14. AA Amount When Sick
  15. Gut to blood transfer limit is overcome by fat coated AA formulation:  Liposomal AA.
  16. Personal case histories with frequent AA intake: Pain from inflammation vanishes at 12 grams/day.
  17. AA and L-AA are wide spectrum antibiotics, antivirals, anti heart disease, anti-cancer, anti venom.
  18. Vitamin C Cautions:  Kidney disease issues, metal deficiencies and chocolate, estrogen level changes.
  19. L-AA Warning: Lecithin plus Kefir may accelerate heart disease and arterial plaques.
  20. Conclusions: If we have inflammation, we should eat more AA with every meal.
  21. Ascorbic Acid Promotes Detoxification and Elimination of 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal in Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells, and speeds up heart attack recovery.
  22. References:


Vitamin C is essential to life.

Most mammals and plants make Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid (AA).  It is an essential modified-sugar-like molecule that all animals and plants need to fight stress, to neutralize toxins and poisons, to preserve their health and to facilitate rapid healing from burns and injuries. AA is an antioxidant and in doing this donates up to 2 electrons. Once this happens the molecule is converted to an oxidant Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA).


In plants AA is plays an essential role in photosynthesis and cell division.   Primates (monkeys and humans), guinea pigs, and fruit bats cannot make AA, because they all have lost the genes that make ascorbic acid from glucose. When we need a molecule and do not make it, then it is called an essential nutrient. Vitamin C has two forms: one is an anti-oxidant (reducing form) and one as an oxidant (oxidizing form). They are almost the same shape, but they are as different as night and day.


Life depends on the ability of molecules to exchange (give/receive) electrons. See Dr. Thomas Levy. Vitamin C is essential to restoring cell vitality in too many life processes to name.  When antioxidant AA cannot be recycled and is used up, you die.  Unless it is replaced with more antioxidant AA.  Cathcart on AA tissue priming.


Stress, oxides, venoms, poisons, toxins, allergens, and microbes that continuously make toxins all combine their effects to consume your AA.  Animals that make AA (usually in their livers, from glucose) make more AA when stressed by a toxin.  Since you cannot make vitamin C, when it is used up you feel sick.  If you replace consumed AA you will soon feel better, for a short while until it is used up, then you will feel sick again.


Here is our (incomplete) catalog of AA’s Functions, Actions and Benefits.


AA Functions:

·        AA is a universal a reducing agent, electron donor, and an antioxidant.

·        AA as a reducing agent has a role in countless different molecule modification reactions.

·        AA is Anti-Venom and a universal toxin/poison antidote

·        Short term, AA is released when a EpiPen shot is given to supply adrenaline. Adrenaline is a stress hormone that frees stored AA from the adrenal glands. Only about 6 grams are available this way. If this is not enough AA for the emergency, you will die. EpiPen is used for rapid recovery from anaphylaxis shock.  Dr Klenner and others  have reported a similar rapid recovery effects of about 12 grams IV of sodium ascorbate.  Ref.

·        Long term, deficiency in AA leads to the disease scurvy due to the role of the vitamin in the post-translational modification of collagens. Scurvy is characterized by arterial weakness and plaques; easily bruised skin; muscle fatigue; soft swollen, bleeding, infected gum; decreased wound healing; hemorrhaging in mucus tissue, gut, respiratory tract, urinary tract, sinuses; osteoporosis, and anemia associated with lysis of red blood cells. Vitamin C is readily absorbed and so the primary cause of vitamin C deficiency is poor diet and/or an increased requirement.

·        Stress is related to the ratio AA/DHA.  Stress causes a rapid depletion in the AA stored in adrenal glands. stores of the vitamin.  AA, vitamin C, is called the anti-stress vitamin.

·        AA  (sodium ascorbate IV or injection) restores red blood cells’ HEME to normal when poisoned by carbon monoxide as in smoke inhalation. The effect is a rapid restoration of blood oxygen transport functionality.

·        AA relieves the coughing fits of Whooping Cough when it is continuously supplied every time coughing resumes, i.e., 24/7.  IV AA sodium ascorbate continuously for several days can drastically reduce the recovery timeline.

·        AA relieves the pain of sunburn and box jellyfish stings, when supplied in large and frequent doses.

·        AA is the cofactor for Cu+–dependent monooxygenases and Fe2+–dependent dioxygenases.

·        AA reduces cytochromes a and c of the respiratory chain.

·        AA is a cofactor in hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen synthesis.

·        AA is essential in maintenance and replacement of normal connective tissue and wound healing.

·        AA is also is necessary for bone growth and fracture healing since collagen is part of the organic matrix of bones.

·        After performing its antioxidant role, AA becomes oxidized to semi-dehydroascorbate  and then to dehydroxy AA (DHA).

·        semidehydroascorbate is reconverted to antioxidant AA in the cytosol by cytochrome b5 reductase and thioredoxin reductase in reactions involving NADH and NADPH, respectively.

·        Dehydroascorbate, the fully oxidized form of vitamin C, is reduced spontaneously by glutathione, as well as enzymatically in reactions using glutathione or NADPH.

·        AA is cofactor in the catabolism of tyrosine

·        AA is cofactor in the synthesis of epinephrine (adrenaline) from tyrosine

·        AA is cofactor in the synthesis of bile acids.

·        AA is essential to steriodogenesis (Steriod hormone production in the adrenal glands) acting in response to ACTH.



We eat the active AA antioxidant molecule. It is transferred from the gut to the bloodstream with at most 20% effectiveness.  The gut can transfer larger than normal amounts if we have high rates of oxidization of the active AA in our blood. If we eat more AA than what we can intake, the gut gets loose at a variable amount called bowel tolerance. Dr. Cathcart found bowel tolerance to be a variable depending on the patients’ medical condition and disease diagnosis.


Long term scurvy is a systemic too-low a level of the reducing form of ascorbic acid, AA.

Rapid onset scurvy (more precisely anascorbemia) is the state where our bodies and blood lack enough antioxidant AA to maintain cellular and organic health.  When the amount of AA in the blood goes below a critical concentration, then AA is sucked out of the storage places in the body.  The amount of histamine in the blood increases exponentially. Blood vessels start to leak and we get blood leaks into our gut and urinary tract. We can see the hemorrhages in the blood vessels of the eyes.  The brain turns to mush, this is mistakenly called SBS, shaken baby syndrome. Kalokerinos. The redness of inflammation is due to histamine and in part to low antioxidant AA in tissues.


The AA converts to dehydroxy AA (DHA) that is an oxidizing agent.  While AA takes an essential part in many molecule-conversion chemical pathways, DHA blocks the conversions.  The biochemistry of life literally stops when AA is converted to DHA.


The AA/DHA Ratio indicates medical condition

When AA meets an oxidizing molecule it is instantly oxidized as it neutralizes the oxidizing molecule. The AA converts to the oxidant form of AA called dehydroxy AA or DHA.  If we take less than several grams of AA per day, and have an acute infection or toxemia, all the AA can be rapidly converted to DHA and this form is prevalent in the blood, tissues, cells and lymph fluids. If we take much more active AA, in frequent doses, then the AA overwhelms the DHA and the sum is more antioxidant than oxidant. The ratio of the concentration of AA/DHA indicates state of health.  8/1 is quite healthy (few oxides) and 1/1 and below is grave with oxides predominating.


The ratio of the concentration of AA/DHA is a dynamic indicator of vital health.  It is impractical to sample this and mail it off for analysis. By the time the courier arrived at the pickup point, the sample could have changed, and the patient with anaphylaxis (AA/DHA< 1) could be dead. (See more below)


Histamine and Scurvy

Histamine accumulation causes inflammation that attacks and dissolves the inter-cellular cement. The blood histamine level begins to rise as soon as the blood plasma AA level falls below the normal level of 1.0 mg/100 ml.  Easily recognizable scurvy does not occur until the AA level falls to 1 mg/liter. So presence of  histamine, allergy, hives, hay fever and sudden onset asthmatic breathing difficulties are a tip off that AA levels are also low.


Vitamin C Blood Levels
The plasma AA levels of the ambulant population is less than is generally appreciated, < 0.7 mg/100 ml in 34% in Brooklyn. < 0.5 mg/100 ml in 30% and < 0.2 mg/100 ml in 6% of people at a HMO clinic in Tempe, Arizona.  Likewise a NHNE survey for the years 1988-94 revealed plasma AA deficiency <0.2 mg/100 ml in 12% Caucasians, 15% of African Americans and 9% of Mexican Americans. Small capillary hemorrhages in the retina could be indicators of vitamin C depletion or to many other factors that increase the blood histamine level.


The more oxides we have in our system the sicker we feel and the more AA we need to take to overwhelm the oxides and the DHA and detoxify the histamine. If we have a grave illness, and do not take frequent doses of several grams of AA, then we are subject to Rapid Onset Scurvy.  AA blood levels have a sigmoidal (limiting S curve) relationship to gut AA intake for water soluble AA.  The transfer percentage curves shift upwards if systemic AA need is great, more AA reaches the blood, but higher intake amounts of AA result in lower gut to blood transfer efficiencies.  See below for intake amounts and frequencies.


Rapid Onset Scurvy needs to be recognized in all diseases.

Cathcart called “Rapid Onset Scurvy”  “Acute Induced Scurvy” or anascorbemia.


Toxins are oxidizing molecules, and antioxidant AA is a universal toxin neutralizer. (See below) The DHA (oxidized AA) is an oxidant and it is not healthy to keep around. To maintain health and chemical processing normality the AA to DHA concentrations ratio must be maintained at much > 1.  In good health the body does not have many toxins and oxides, so the reducing AA is stored in various places for later use.  Oxidizing DHA is sucked up into cells if they crave sugars. Microbe infected cells and cancer cells crave lots of sugar. DHA can oxidize mitochondria and kill infected cells that have excessive needs for sugars to maintain parasite-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions.


The blood half lifetime for active AA is ½ hour when you are healthy.  When you are sick the reducing AA molecules are converted instantly when they meet an oxidant or a toxin molecule. In such a case, without repeated AA intake, reducing AA blood levels can be quite low. This results in release of histamine; Rapid Onset Scurvy is the pathogenically low sub critical AA level; a inflammation cascades and more toxins.  Some diseases require several hundred grams of AA intake per day to neutralize toxins and oxides produced continuously by the infection. Ebola, Marburg and West Nile Disease’s hemorrhagic fevers are severe examples of anascorbemic scurvy. 


SIDS and SBS are caused by Rapid Onset Scurvy.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) are examples of Rapid Onset Scurvy. The underlying cause of the exceptional AA need can be gut toxemia (endotoxin), a mild infection, oxide stress, and vaccine induced toxin or adjuvant caused shock. 


Too many doctors do not realize sick infants’ need for AA and do not test for depleted AA or provide supplemental AA before and after they vaccinate, leading to vaccine adverse reactions from Rapid Onset Scurvy.


Dr. Archie Kalokerinos wrote a lot about this subject. His book Every Second Child describes one Australian episode of mass deaths from vaccination caused Rapid Onset Scurvy. His book is out of print and forgotten, leading to repeated cases of mass deaths in Africa from mass vaccination programs. Uganda

“Suffice it to say that it is probably wise to postpone vaccinations and inoculations for any premature or sickly infant; moreover, a 500 mg vitamin C supplement should be given in orange juice before or at the time of an inoculation to any healthy infant.

“Extensive studies have been conducted to ascertain the presence or absence of toxicity for each individual inoculant, but now that we recognize the toxic effects of elevated blood histamine levels resulting from inoculations, we must consider the additive toxic effect of all the inoculants taken together. So many inoculants are given together nowadays.

“Moreover, the parents should not be held responsible for “Shaken Baby Syndrome” just because an infant convulses or dies with petechial hemorrhages in the retina within a week or two after receiving the usual inoculations.

“Even some American soldiers going to the Gulf War suffered grievous consequences following the battery of inoculations they received. Elevated tissue histamine levels cause asthma, hay fever, nettle rash or angio-neurotic edema, but elevated blood histamine levels cause endothelial damage and capillary fragility throughout the body.  Dr C. Alan B. Clemetson, M.D.


Emergency First-Aid: Carbon Monoxide, Smoke Inhalation, Venoms, Sunburn and Heat Stroke.

AA’s toxin neutralization works for all sorts of toxins and poisons ranging from carbon monoxide & cyanides, to nitrogen oxides and to the hyper oxides called free radicals.  Toxins are oxidizing poisons from microbes and infections, food poisoning, insect bites, snakebites, jellyfish stings, sunburn, frostbite, poisonous plants (poison ivy and mushrooms), pollens, food and respiratory allergens, vaccine allergens and toxic adjuvants, and environmental toxic chemicals and metals that also include allergens, mercury and other toxic metals.  Dr. Cathcart’s recipe for making IV sodium ascorbate solution, for doctors only. AA solution when fresh is clear.  When AA oxidizes to DHA, the solution turns yellow.


Emergency medicine can improve outcomes significantly by use of IV Sodium Ascorbate. Using rapid, large doses of up to 100 grams per day of combined oral, Liposomal-AA, and sodium ascorbate IV (5-20 grams) immediate infusions. Recovery from anaphylactic shock is nearly immediate.  Pain/itching of shingles, sunburn, plantar faschiitis, jellyfish stings, snakebites and insect bites and bee/scorpion stings is rapidly reduced with repeated large-enough AA or sodium ascorbate dosages several grams minimum every few hours. Oral Liposomal-AA formulation may be the preferred second level administration after direct to vein infusion of sodium ascorbate. However both AA powder and Lipo-AA can be usefully combined, since they supplement each other in delivery of AA to various parts of the body. See Ref 5, below.


Amanita mushrooms are highly toxic. Wikipedia in its discussion says there is no [USA] known antidote.  This is incorrect. The “cure” is known outside the US, in at least France and South Africa.  AA’s mycotoxin neutralizing is discussed in Dr Levy’s book, see below.  IV and injected sodium ascorbate >3 grams per day (or more frequently) plus other supportive medicines have been used successfully to completely neutralize the nerve and liver toxins in ingesting of up to 70 grams of the amanita phalloides mushroom. See A Cure for Mushroom Poisoning by M.D. Laing, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa;  South Africa Mediese Tydsdrif, April 14, 1984, p. 590.  More than 3 grams of sodium ascorbate can also be injected IV or in muscles in cases of  recurring toxin symptoms, distress, or of anaphylaxis.  The reported AA cure takes 3 days.  Without treatment, death occurs in 3-5 days with both liver, nerve and kidney poisoning from the complex of multiple mycotoxins. Total blood replacement may also be useful, but if enough AA (injected sodium ascorbate) is given in doses at least every 3-6 hours, as soon as symptoms start, distress will be eased and recovery should be certain.


Dr. Thomas Levy’s book Curing the Incurable, in Chapter 3 contains many toxin neutralization details. Dr. Frederick Klenner wrote of many case histories of toxin neutralization using injections and IV sodium ascorbate for patients in many kinds of grave conditions.


Active AA can neutralize all of each toxin, poison and allergen only if it is given repeatedly in enough quantities and for a long enough time.  Seldom does this happen because AA’s pharmacokinetics is not widely and deeply understood.  Orthomolecular medicine doctors do have this knowledge. The Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine has many articles relating to AA as a life-restoring chemical.


Needed AA amounts can vary rapidly and widely.

Hundreds of grams of AA in the blood may be needed each day. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) was thought to be about 60 milligrams.  Chronic infections continuously create inflammation-causing reactive oxygen species/stress (ROS) and this creates an AA dependency where the minimum AA need is in the tens of grams per day (sometimes per hour).  If AA supply in the blood is low, all the active AA is converted to the oxidizing form which then acts as an oxide in certain parts of the body and the inflammation cascade continues. This happens if AA intake transferred to the blood is less than several grams per day.  Because of the gut to blood transfer rate limits and 20% transfer efficiency, if one needed 10 grams of blood AA one would have to take 50 grams of oral AA.  This could be done with 2 grams per hour 24/7.  Liposomal AA would work 5 times better than AA and IV sodium ascorbate would be better and much faster.


Higher amounts of antioxidant AA, 10 grams/day or more per 100 Kg body weight can keep the oxidizing DHA from doing harm.  Some conditions require even ten to a hundred times more AA than this.  In such a case, continuous sodium ascorbate IV is called for perhaps at a rate of 10 grams per hour for a 100 Kg patient in grave condition. This is especially so if hemorrhagic fever conditions are present.


How AA and DHA work to kill microbe infected cells.

Oxides convert AA into DHA.  In the cells the DHA acts like a sugar.   Cells use the same chemical pipes that are used for sugar intake to preferentially ingest DHA.  This works for the disease microbes’ cells, for viruses, for cancer cells, and for microbe-invaded host cells of all types (blood, tissue, epithelial, immune, nerve, muscle, tendon, etc).  These compromised cells crave sugar.


However, if you are hyperglycemic, the excess blood sugar will block the uptake of DHA. Blocked, DHA cannot do its oxidizing job inside the invaded cells, which kills the microbe-invaded, gene-compromised cells.  So these cells live on to act as reproductive factories for making more disease microbes through replication. This sugar blocking of the DHA uptake is one of the ways diabetes’ healing and microbe fighting is suppressed.


AA intake amounts and frequencies.

The amount of toxin or oxidizing molecules that are present in the body determines the amount of AA that is needed. Food is oxidized to release the energy we use. AA is oxidized when it meets the oxides and toxins produced by stress and by the microbes that make us ill. Thus AA is an essential food.  See How Much Vitamin C.


See Vitamin C Foundation:  It’s the Dosage Stupid.  This blog has two pages, read both of them for completeness.

If the AA dosage is low or infrequent, AA does not work effectively as an antibiotic and an antiviral.  AA at nutritional levels never has high enough AA blood concentration to work as an antibiotic/antiviral. Thus the poor results in study after study of nutritional AA levels (50-300 mg per day, single dose) Vs. acute and chronic infections. Once the proper AA blood concentrations are maintained by frequent several grams of AA intake, then the remarkable healing actions of AA Vs. infections become evident.  The needed levels of water-soluble AA daily may amount to several tens of grams per day up to several hundred grams. Oral intake of water soluble AA above 2 grams per hour is not well adsorbed. Thus the need for many, frequent intake doses. Taking AA with aloe vera can increase AA bioavailability by a factor of 3x. Another form of AA, Liposomal AA, has 5x better gut to blood transfer pharmacokinetics.


If you are sick or have high stress, AA is needed in the blood in minimal amounts of several tens of grams per day per 100 kg of body weight.  With a chronic illness the microbes make more and more toxins. We need to eat more and more AA when we continue to be sick. We can tell when it is used up, the sickness feels worse. Fever increases without AA; with AA fever decreases. Frequent oral doses like every ½ hour may be needed in the gravest of cases to try to get more AA from gut to blood. 


At least 5 times the AA must be eaten to get an amount of AA into the blood. At best, only about 20% of the AA we eat gets from gut to the blood where it can be moved to the parts of the body that urgently need it.  So if we eat 5 grams, less than one gram makes it to the blood.  A rat under stress makes 10 to 20 grams of blood content AA per 100 Kg. 


Since sugar blocks AA transport, hyperglycemic and diabetic blood disables AA, so that at least 6 grams/day are needed to partly restore AA to normal effectiveness.  Disabled AA causes many subtle diverse systemic enzyme and hormonal unbalances and systemic immune system dysfunctions.  Even with normal glucose ranges, a suppressed immune system needs at least 6 grams/day to start to restore immune system functionality. 


Oxide-Histamine Chain Reaction

In the absence of DHA, microbes inside our cells can successfully replicate.  Low AA and high DHA cause a release of histamine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). With the excess histamine, we have an allergic flare with the histamine also acting as a poison.  We do not have enough AA to neutralize the histamine.  The oxides and toxins increase in quantity and start to oxidize our cells.  A chemical fire destroys cells and cell components, leaving more toxic fragments. 


These oxidized components then act as toxins and oxides causing further cascading destruction. Other parts of the immune system fire up resulting from the allergens produced by the cascade.  See Kalokerinos baby Yurkos post mortem analysis.


AA Amount When Sick

When we are sick or in pain, an allergy attack or have a fever, we need to get a minimum of several grams of AA every hour into our bloodstream to replace the rapidly oxidized AA.  If we eat enough AA (at least several grams) we will usually start to feel better within a few minutes.  When we run out of active AA we start to feel bad again because the protective AA is used up. This is the signal for us to eat more AA.


If we are very seriously ill, we may need >200 grams of AA per day (>4 grams per hour) in the blood to neutralize the DHA, oxides and toxins.  If we eat AA each hour this would mean intake of 20 grams per hour at 20% transfer efficiency gut to blood.  See How Much AA.  Frequent small intakes are much better than single large daily dosage.


Unfortunately, if oral AA is given in dosages greater than 4 grams dose, the efficiency of gut to blood transfer drops even lower.  Transfer from gut to the blood severely limits blood AA levels to amounts that may not keep up with the toxin cascade.


Single AA dose per day can be very ineffective.  2-48 is the AA level one-day after intake. With larger than ~4 grams single dosage, most of the AA never gets past the gut/blood boundary.  This and the instant destruction of the AA by the oxides and toxins of acute infections cause the gravely low,  1 > AA/DHA, ratio of blood levels of Rapid Onset Scurvy.  The ½ hour AA blood half lifetime depletes the unoxidized AA steadily, contributing to the extremely low AA blood levels. 


In clinical practice, the AA blood levels are almost never tested. AA in urine can easily be tested. When AA blood levels are tested in an average population, a significant percentage of the population is found to have critical AA depletion.  Anascorbemia is present, but it is ignored, the symptoms are attributed to the natural consequence of acute and chronic illnesses.  Because of the gut/blood transfer inefficiency, not enough AA can be input orally and make its way to the blood to make a difference.  So experimenters with low AA oral dosages always find it to be of little help.  This is because they do not measure the blood levels.  If they did they would find there was very little AA in the blood. They could supplement with IV or injected sodium ascorbate and produce the remarkable rapid condition recoveries reported by Klenner, Cathcart, Kalokerinos, Levy, Riordan, and many others.


Gut to blood AA transfer-rate limit is bypassed by fat-coated AA:  Liposomal AA.

There is a new form of AA where the AA is encapsulated by lecithin lipids. This is called Liposomal AA (L-AA).   Its transfer efficiency (Gut to Blood) is said to be 93-98%.  This form of oral AA has no upper limit to the amount that can be transferred to the blood.  If you take enough of L-AA frequently (every 1 to 2 hours) you can produce higher blood AA levels than are needed to kill many viruses and cancer cells. 


L-AA is an inexpensive AA treatment modality that needs to be applied universally in cases of serious epidemics, in addition to the sodium ascorbate IV and injections.  If this were done in current emergency treatment protocols recovery rates would improve substantially.  A combination of sodium ascorbate injections, direct injection into the bloodstream, and L-AA in place of normal oral AA can be most effective.


In the anascorbemic state, when toxins cascade, the body exhibits pain, inflammation, rashes, swelling, redness, itching, fever, lethargy, sometimes cyanosis, and all the other symptoms of illness.  In general, disease symptoms are caused by the cascading oxide storm of Rapid Onset Scurvy that consumes tissues and cells. 


Personal case histories with frequent AA intake:

What we have personally found is that with chronic microbe infections accompanied with extreme pain:

Application of antibiotics can produce greater inflammation and more pain and discomfort. If the blood AA can be raised enough by frequent multi gram AA doses, within a few hours to several days, the signs of inflammation and the pains vanish. 


For a 130 pound woman, 2 grams of oral AA every 2 waking hours, for a total of ~ 24 grams per day has eliminated the pain of severe plantar fasciitis caused by a reaction to a regimen of Cipro treating a bladder infection. She woke up the next morning and foot pain was gone, it was as if it never happened.  Prior intake was 6 grams/day 2gm x 3/day.


Greater than 16 grams per day for a 100 Kg man, taken in small divided doses, every three hours has resolved long term severe hip inflammation and disabling pain. (induced by Cipro) Pain nearly vanished within 2 days. 


A rapid onset of a sinus headache was completely reversed in one hour by taking 5 grams of AA as soon as the symptoms started. A second dose was taken 2 hours later, and again the next day.  


Blogs have reported great reduction or near elimination of seasonal hay fever allergies with daily AA intake, but the continued low-level discomfort reported may indicate too low a dosage of AA or not frequent enough intake.  Other blogs on L-AA are now reporting rapid defeat of acute infections within a few hours of onset, consistent with its 5 times greater gut to blood transfer efficiency and the effectiveness of higher AA blood levels.  Historical AA trials never achieved AA blood levels in the range found to be effective in vitro against pathogens.

L-AA promises to raise AA blood levels above the threshold of effectiveness for many viruses and for cancer treatments


AA/L-AA act as antibiotics, antivirals, anti heart disease, anti-cancer.

AA concentration blood levels (above the in vitro microbe killing concentrations) was well documented by Dr Frederick Klenner.  However the successful results of high AA blood IV levels were not repeatable by oral AA dosage by other experimenters, by the poor design of their experiments.  The AA gut to blood transfer is less than 20% effective and blood half lifetime for AA is ½ hour.  AA can convert to Dehydroxy AA (oxidized/oxidizing form) in microseconds when an oxide or toxin molecule is encountered. Nutrition studies had AA levels many orders of magnitude below pharmacokinetically effective AA blood levels in treating infections and toxins. Dosage frequencies were grossly inadequate to provide consistent high and effective AA blood levels.


Quote from the Vitamin C Archive  showing the effectiveness of sodium ascorbate IV vs oral administration of AA

Ref: read articleThe Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic: Klenner, The Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1953

“Vitamin C response when taken by mouth is not predictable... [it is] reported that the scorbutic state could develop even though the patient was taking large doses of vitamin C by mouth ... one of our daughters several years ago ... had contracted chicken-pox. Vitamin C was started on this child ... In spite of the fact that she was given 24 grams every 24 hours there was no interruption in the progress of the disease. Itching was intense. One gram administered intravenously stopped the itch within 30 minutes and she went on to peaceful sleep for the next eight hours. Although feeling fine, a second injection was given at this time, following which there were no new macules and recovery was fast and uneventful. In the past few years we have noted that in chicken-pox when massive injections are employed there [are] no repeating waves of macules, and the usual seven to nine days required for crusting is reduced to less than twenty-four hours.”

[AscorbateWeb Editorial: This is another lively work by Klenner, emphasizing among other things the chancy nature of oral ascorbate administration. Injected administration (shots or intravenous) is the only reliable way to raise blood ascorbate levels.

The reader’ s attention is especially directed to Klenner’s dismantling of the unscientific Sabin monkey study which helped to discredit ascorbate therapy in the eyes of the medical establishment, a sorry condition that persists to this day.

Dr Cathcart and Dr Kalokerinos validated the Klenner results, as did many other orthomolecular scientists, worldwide. See Sabin. Sabin used a too low, single oral AA dose, not multiple & frequently-repeated AA doses and not IV or injected/infused AA (as was used by successful clinicians of the times); instead Sabin used oral AA which is ~5 times less effective in raising AA blood levels.  AA pharmacokinetics and half hour blood half life was ignored completely. It is as if Sabin knowingly stacked the deck to disprove AA was effective.


Sabin’s experiment is typical of the oral trials in later years that provided nutritional levels of AA and paid no attention to the short half lifetime, rapid conversion from AA to DHA in the presence of toxins, and the highly dynamic AA/DHA ratio.  Antioxidant (reducing) AA will soon be less than DHA, in the presence of continuously produced ROS and NOS, allergens, poisons, and toxins. AA/DHA < 1 soon cascades into a death spiral. Frequent multi gram oral AA supplementation can tip the ratio back to a healthy range. (Note here IV and injected AA is used to mean sodium ascorbate)


Klenner, Kalokerinos, and Cathcart understood AA pharmacokinetics.  Few of those who chose to experiment with AA considered the half lifetime of ½ hour or the 20% gut to blood transfer efficiency limits.   They considered dosages of  ~300 milligrams to be massive and that one time or once per day to be all that was needed. This amount of AA was oxidized within a few minutes and the anascorbemic, grave AA/DHA ratio continued, with AA blood levels not monitored. But we know now antioxidant-AA blood levels were in the dangerously low range, most of the time.


Klenner found that some toxins from insects required injections or IV of 5-10s of grams per 50Kg body weight, repeated after several hours, several times per day to reverse the toxin cascade.  He tested for antioxidant, reducing-AA in the urine and found none as long as the AA/DHA ratio was less than 1.  Once the reducing AA started to show in the urine, the patient was usually out of danger. Both IV and frequent oral intake of AA were used together.


Vitamin C Cautions: 

You should consult with a doctor familiar with special nutrition for diseases and with orthomolecular medicine.


AA is a chelator (remover) of metals; long-term, high-intake levels of AA can upset the trace element balances for copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and even change (improves mobility) the way calcium works in the body. Ely reports large use of AA requires larger co-administration of vitamin E ~400 units per day.


In colonial times 1700s through the early 1900’s  the herb boneset was used to facilitate healing of broken bones along with sources of calcium and phosphorus. AA is essential to collagen (a protein) production and wound repair. Teas made from boneset contain a lot of vitamin C and were a common cold remedy.  More recently, sustained intake of excessive dietary AA was reported to adversely affect a child’s bone development. See hotlink, below.


AA chelates (removes) copper, zinc and magnesium.  Supplements of chocolate can replace these.  In cases of metal overload from chocolate, AA can remove the excess. 


Here is one of the most thoughtful discussions of normal vitamin C nutrition.  It is worth reading several times to fully understand it.


L-AA Warning: Lecithin plus Kefir probiotic microbe may accelerate heart disease and arterial plaques.

Avoid use of Lecithin with consuming Kefir because one of Kefir’s required probiotic bacteria, L. rhamnosus, converts Lecithin in the gut into a fishy smelling gas that the liver then converts to a plaque growth-enhancing nutrient, leading to increased heart disease risk.  It is not known how Lecithin plus encapsulated AA works with this bacterium, but it is likely that the L. rhamnosus behavior will be different, and your gut may not have this bad strain of bacteria as a colony anyway.

AA is known to help to heal and reduce plaques. Some of the adverse or no effect cases use too much sugar which blocks the AA actions. Restrict sugar and HFCS (corn sweeteners) intake drastically, so the AA will work better. Also use Xylitol as a sweetener because it changes plaque bacteria to eliminate plaque formation.  See our AA Ketonic protocols web  article.

Low adverse L-AA reactions Probability <2/60. Adverse L-AA effects (for some) may be a temporary Liver overload due to too high a dosage of Lecithin: oily skin, rashes due to changes in skin’s  microbiome. Add a little extra virgin olive oil (antimicrobial), coconut oil (Lauric Acid) and butter (Palmitic Acid) to the mix in place of half of the Lecithin; this may fix gut/respiratory/skin microbiome problems.  Back off and then more slowly ramp up the L-AA dosage if you encounter adverse gut or liver or skin symptoms.



  1. Rapid Onset Scurvy is real. It can kill rapidly; if it does not kill, it can cause permanent disabilities.
  2. Antidote for scurvy and toxin cascades from any source is frequent ingestion of AA or L-AA.
  3. Where anaphylaxis calls for adrenaline, additional large amounts of AA will do the job even better.
  4. Immediate IV sodium ascorbate infusions can save lives in grave conditions, rapidly reversing toxic shock and cyanosis.
  5. For infections, the goal should be to raise the AA level in the blood to microbe-killing in vitro AA blood concentration levels.
  6. Active AA levels in the blood and urine should be monitored.  This will quantify the anascorbemic state.
  7. Frequently repeated AA intake is needed to replace AA oxidized instantly fighting the toxins and oxides that accompany all acute diseases.
  8. Following steps 4 & 5, above, can cure chronic viral infections.
  9. Read Dr. Levy’s book  Curing the Incurable. Chapter 3 The Ultimate Antidote is especially important for treatment of intoxication, smoke inhalation and carbon monoxide poisoning, insect and snakebite, anaphylaxis, mushroom poisoning, sunburn and heat stroke, poisonings of all kinds, endotoxin, microbial toxins, and viral infections. (5-10)
  10. Persons with chronic infections should take several grams of AA with each meal. Avoid sugar intake; it blocks AA’s and DHA’s functions.
  11. Acutely sick persons should always see their doctor on an immediate basis.  As a supplement to the doctor’s treatments they may notice the beneficial effects of several grams of AA every 1-3 hours during waking hours. The very sick can benefit from using L-AA. In a similar manner. When symptoms start to return take more.
  12. AA in 3 grams every 2 hours has relieved pain overnight. 
  13. L-AA in same amounts and frequencies has reversed onset of viral infection in a few hours.
  14. Small children should not be vaccinated without AA and certainly not when they are ill;
  15. AA should be given for a week before vaccination and several weeks after.
  16. The Vitamin C RDA needs to be revised to be consistent with the existence of Rapid Onset Scurvy and special population needs.
  17. We need to eat a lot more of AA frequently for good health AA is an essential food.
  18. AA needs to be added to most junk foods (~10 grams per day); mandated in the same way the B vitamins are required for cereals, pasta and rice.
  19. A balanced AA formula with minerals needs to be devised to counteract the metal chelation effects of AA.
  20. If your critical need for high AA is over, gradually go back to a more normal level of intake, but if your symptoms return, then adjust your AA intake based on how the AA reduces your symptoms.


References: Blue text indicates hyperlink to web location.

  1. The Effect Of Vitamin C And Certain Other Substances On The Growth Of Micro-Organisms By Gopal Chandra, et al (1941)
  2. See our AA and nutrition writings. Includes Klenner, Cathcart, Pauling, Stone references.
  3. Read Irwin Stone’s online book The Healing Factor at the Vitamin C Foundation’s website.
  4. Vitamin C’s functions in the body.  From The Healing Factor by Irwin Stone.
  5. IV-AA neutralizes Toxins and Poisons: Curing the Incurable, by Dr. Thomas Levy, Chapter 3: The Ultimate Antidote see [Online] in part. Other sections not online include Endotoxin, Carbon Monoxide, Alcohol (ethanol and methanol) intoxication, Barbiturates, Methemoglobinemias caused by drugs and chemicals, Acrolein (smoke inhalation), Acetaminophen, Benzenes, Chloramphenicol, Chloroforms, Cyanides, Cyclophosphamide, Cyclosporine, Dopamine, Hydrazine sulfate, Isoproteranol, Nitrates and Nitrites, Mycotoxins from mushrooms (general discussion), Phenol, PCBs, Porphyrins, Rubidium, Selenium, Sulfa drug side effects, Tetracycline IV kidney toxicity, Pesticides, Nuclear radiation exposure and radiation therapy adverse effects, Strychnine and Tetanus toxin, Toxic Elements: Aluminum, Arsenicals, Fluorine/fluoride, Mercury (extensive discussion), Nickel, Vanadium; Venoms: Insect, Snake.  Emphasis on IV plus oral AA in large doses 40-60 grams per day in some cases. Frequent repeated intake.  Later editions discuss Liposomal-AA. Levy reports in Vitamin C Foundation discussion: Liposomal AA is 10 times more effective gram per gram compared to Cathcart’s formulated IV-sodium ascorbate in clinical effectiveness.
  6. Primal-Panacea By Thomas-E-Levy, Contains thorough discussion of Liposomal vitamin C. Read the review by Jodi-Hummingbird.
  7. A Cure for Mushroom Poisoning by M.D. Laing, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa;  South Africa Mediese Tydsdrif, April 14, 1984, p. 590.
  8. Read Dr. Lendon Smith’s Clinical Guide to Use of Vitamin C based on Dr. Klenner’s publications.
  9. Buy the remarkably thorough catalog of AA’s therapeutic actions in Dr. Thomas Levy’s book Curing the Incurable, this is a well-organized guide to successful AA based treatments with over 1200 supporting references and notes of successful cases of applied functional medicine.
  10. Curing the Incurable Kindle Edition (2011 same as 2002 edition).  Download the Amazon Kindle application (free) for the PC or Apple computer. Then you can buy the Kindle Edition for much less than the hard copy. $9.99 was discounted to $3.03.
  11. See Vitamin C Archive of historically organized important scientific papers about vitamin C.
  12. Why unprofitable treatments are ignored.  Ascorbic Acid and Some Other Modern Analogs of the Germ Theory by John Ely. The concept “autoimmune disease” is a denial of the germ theory of chronic illness.
  13. The Origin of the 42-Year Stonewall of Vitamin C  By Robert Landwehr.
  14. Dissertation: A.O. Olibisi,  The Chemistry of L-Ascorbic Acid …. in Synthesis…..
  15. The Function and Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid in Plants By Nicholas Smirnoff, Annals of Botany, 1996 AA is essential in cell division.
  16. Liposomes were first proposed as a unique drug delivery system approximately 35 years ago. One of the primary reasons for utilizing a liposome-encapsulation delivery system is to assure a near complete absorption of the encapsulated nutrient or drug into the bloodstream. The physical qualities of the liposome also eliminate the need for digestive activity before absorption.  See:
  17. Dr. Levy’s website is  where you will find valuable resources and current medical news about vitamin C. Dr. Levy is the author of six books on health-related issues. He is an expert on dental infections.
  18. Authoritative Nutrition Sites:
  19. Ascorbic Acid Ketonic Multifactor Protocols:
  20. AA Pharmacokinetics:
  21. Heart Attack Recovery: AA detoxifies and reverses oxidation cascade. See NIHPA Author Manuscripts, PMC2730585:  Ascorbic Acid Promotes Detoxification and Elimination of 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal in Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells Quote:4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE), a reactive aldehyde derived from oxidized lipids, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, in part by its ability to induce oxidative stress and by protein carbonylation in target cells. …. Ascorbic acid accumulated in the cells at concentrations of 6.4 mM or 8.9 mM after treatment with 0.1 mM or 1 mM ascorbate in the medium for 18 h. Pretreatment of cells with 1.0 mM ascorbate decreased HNE-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and formation of protein carbonyls. The protective effects of ascorbate were associated with an increase of the formation of GSH-HNE conjugate and its phase-1 metabolites, measured by LC-MS/MS, and with increased transport of GSH conjugates from the cells into the medium. Ascorbate pretreatment enhanced the efflux of the multi-drug resistant protein (MRP) substrate, carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF), and it prevented the HNE-induced inhibition of CDF export from THP-1 cells, suggesting that the protective effect of ascorbate against HNE cytotoxicity is through modulation of MRP-mediated transport of GSH-HNE conjugate metabolites.”
  22. Massive Doses of Ascorbate: A Paradigm Shift  --- Robert F. Cathcart, M.D. (Sept 2000)  Ascorbate Vs Allergies, Pain and Inflammation



Copyright KF and KM Poehlmann, January 2013, all rights reserved.

Our Experience and Qualifications

(Katherine Poehlmann, PhD and Karl Poehlmann)

Inflammation, chronic infections, nutrition and immunity are topics we have researched broadly in our studies of worldwide medical knowledge, documented on the Internet and in the historical archives of medicine.  We have spent over ten calendar years reading about these inter-related subjects, attending postgraduate medical conferences. We have read countless medical texts, abstracts, and papers, online in the National Library of Medicine and contained at various authoritative medical, nutritional and biological websites. The mass of the available information worldwide is tremendous. Search engines can reach much of it, so it can be correlated productively.


Nothing herein or referenced herein should be considered prescriptive for any medical condition.  This information is for study and education purposes only.  The readers are advised to find and consult well-educated, trained and licensed medical and nutritional practitioners who shall evaluate the many circumstances and conditions of each of their patients and will devise appropriate treatments and nutritional plans for them.  It is recognized that each person has the right and duty to be well informed about the best foods, nutrition and medical practices available that will promote their own good health.  The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and the sources cited and there are many divergences of opinions on many topics. The readers must resolve the conflicts, in their own minds, after careful consideration of all the details and after any further necessary research and study.

Our books are available on  

More intermediate-level information is pointed to below, See Latest Findings and Free Articles.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Infection Connection  (2001, and 2011) and

Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection (2012)

Latest Findings: » West Nile Cure?  » Liposomal Vitamin C       » Systemic Plaque Cures?

» Hantavirus Epidemic ‘12        »  Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics    » AA Ketonic Protocol Factors

» How Vitamin C Works            »  A 2nd Vitamin  C Overview      » Misdiagnosis: Scurvy as SBS  

» COPD Countermeasures         » Vitamin C Relieves Pain            » Video Liposomal Vitamin C

» Vitamin C Foundation Videos »  AA vs. Cancer Update              » $83,000 Scorpion Bite

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» Movie: “Forks Over Knives”  » Flu Vaccines Cause Scurvy?     » Vaccines Vs. Nutrition    

» Prager:VaccinesCauseAutism?   » Flu Pandemic 2013 AA Defense    » Biofilms Tutorial


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